Tag Archives: Iraq war

Newly-declassified report shows U.S. invaded Iraq with no hard evidence of WMDs

The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began with the invasion of Iraq on March 20, 2003, 1½ years after the traumatic 9/11 attacks, by a U.S.-led coalition.
The invasion began with a “shock and awe” bombing campaign. Iraqi forces were quickly overwhelmed as U.S. forces swept through the country. The invasion led to the collapse of the Ba’athist government of Saddam Hussein, who was captured in December 2003 and executed by a military court three years later.
But the war continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. Worse still, Saddam’s former military officers morphed into ISIS, which became the Islamic State. (See Blowback: ISIS leaders are former officers of Saddam Hussein’s army”) Although the United States officially withdrew from Iraq in 2011, we became re-involved in 2014 as the Iraqi government proved itself unable to cope with ISIS.
Altogether, the Iraq War exacted a toll of hundreds of thousands in casualties:

  • An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 Iraqis were killed in the first 3–4 years of conflict.
  • 6,045 Americans were killed: 4,491 soldiers; 1,554 contractors. Additionally, 76,106 Americans were wounded: 32,226 soldiers; 43,880 contractors.

The Iraq War cost the U.S. government more than $845 billion — $720 million a day, if one takes into account the long-term health care for veterans, interest on debt and replacement of military hardware, according to Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph E. Stiglitz and Harvard public finance professor Linda Bilmes.  
The George W. Bush administration based its rationale for war principally on the assertion that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) — yellow-cake uranium poison gas, biological weapons — and that Saddam’s government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies. Saddam was also accused of of harboring and supporting al-Qaeda, the terrorist group identified as the instigator of 9/11.
The rationale for the Iraq War has since been discredited. But a newly-declassified report to the then-Joint Chiefs of Staff provides even more evidence that the Bush administration went to war with, at best, flimsy evidence of Iraq’s WMDs — a war in which 6,045 Americans lost their lives.
Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense 2001-2006
John Walcott, adjunct professor in the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, reports for Politico, Jan. 24, 2016, that on September 9, 2002, as the Bush administration began its public-opinion campaign for an invasion of Iraq, a classified report from Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld landed on the desk of the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), Air Force General Richard Myers.
The report began with these words:

“Please take a look at this material as to what we don’t know about WMD. It is big.”

The report was an inventory of what U.S. intelligence didn’t know about Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. The report admitted that what the U.S. didn’t know about Iraq’s WMD program ranged from 0% to about 75%While the threat posed by a nuclear-armed Iraq was at the heart of the administration’s case for war, the JCS report conceded that:

“Our knowledge of the Iraqi (nuclear) weapons program is based largely—perhaps 90%—on analysis of imprecise intelligence.”

Myers already knew about the report because the Joint Staff’s director for intelligence had prepared it. Clearly, Rumsfeld’s urgent tone conveyed how seriously he viewed the report’s potential to undermine the Bush administration’s case for war.
But neither Rumsfeld nor Myers shared the 8-page report with key members of the administration such as then-Secretary of State Colin Powell or top officials at the CIA, according to multiple sources at the State Department, White House and CIA who agreed to speak on condition of anonymity. Instead, the report disappeared, and with it a potentially powerful counter-narrative to the administration’s argument that Saddam Hussein’s nuclear, chemical and biological weapons posed a grave threat to the U.S. and its allies, which was beginning to gain traction in major news outlets, led by the New York Times.
A month after Rumsfeld’s note to Myers, on October 7, 2002, Bush appeared at a VFW hall in Cincinnati, where he declared without reservation: Iraq “possesses and produces chemical and biological weapons. It is seeking nuclear weapons.” In February 2003, Powell appeared before the UN General Assembly to make the administration’s case, with CIA Director George Tenet sitting behind him:

“My colleagues, every statement I make today is backed up by sources, solid sources. These are not assertions. What were giving you are facts and conclusions based on solid intelligence.

Below are screenshots of the 8-page report, preceded by Rumsfeld’s memo to Myers, and Director for Intelligence Major Gen. Glen Shaffer’s memo to the JCS (source: Politico). I supplied the red-color emphasis.
Iraq report Rumsfeld memo to MyersIraq report Rumsfeld memo to Myers1Iraq WMD1Iraq WMD2Iraq WMD3Iraq WMD4Iraq WMD5Iraq WMD6Iraq WMD7Iraq WMD8
The Bush administration invaded Iraq — a war that cost the lives of 6,045 Americans and over $845 billion — with the justification that Saddam had Weapons of Mass Destruction and was an imminent threat to U.S. security, although both the U.S. Defense Secretary and the Joint Chiefs of Staff knew we had only flimsy hard evidence — that U.S. intelligence depended “heavily on analytic assumptions and judgment rather than hard evidence” and that “We don’t know with any precision how much we don’t know.”
Let that thought sink in . . . .
Meanwhile, the Neo-con warmongers in Congress are fast-tracking a resolution to give Obama unlimited war-making powers — unrestricted in time or geography.
See:

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

US Marine Corps commandant openly blasts CIC Obama

Retired U.S. military officers and a former secretary of defense have spoken out against Obama, but this is the first time that a still-serving officer is openly critical.
And not just any officer, but the 4-star commandant of United States Marine Corps — a significant indicator of the profound alienation of the military from their commander-in-chief.
Thank you, Gen. Amos, for speaking the truth.

Please follow and like us:
0
 

Obama Sends Combat Troops to Iraq

It’s déjà vu all over again.

Three years after U. S. troops had withdrawn from Iraq, finally ending America’s war and occupation (2003-2011) of that benighted country, our soldiers will be sent there again.

This evening, June 16, 2014, after a weekend of golfing and political fundraising in California, President Lucifer declared, in a letter to Congress, that U.S. ground troops “equipped for combat” are being sent to Iraq.

The troops’ “only purpose” is to protect US personnel and the US Embassy in Baghdad from the ISIS militants — and not join in the fierce fighting raging outside the Iraqi capital. Blah. Blah. Blah.

In so doing, Obama directly reversed what he had said merely 3 days ago. Last Friday, he clearly said that while the U.S. will “do our part” to help, no troops will be sent to Iraq.

ISIS or the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria is an extremist Sunni jihadist group that aspires to create a caliphate — a theocratic pan-Islamic state — in the New Levant of Iraq, Syria, southern Turkey, Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Israel. (See “ISIS: the savage jihadists laying waste to Iraq“)

New LevantAbout 160 American soldiers are already in Iraq, including 50 Marines and more than 100 Army soldiers. Some of those soldiers have only recently arrived. Under tonight’s authorization, the U.S. will put an additional 100 soldiers in a nearby third country where they would be held in reserve until needed.

The POS did not give a deadline for the troops’ exit, only that the 275 soldiers will remain in Iraq for as long as they are needed to protect US interests. The White House says the U.S. military personnel are entering Iraq with its government’s consent.

Meanwhile, Secretary of State John “snake-tongue” Kerry says Washington is “open to discussions” with Tehran about military cooperation. Iran has hinted that it is prepared to cooperate with the United States, whom Iran has called the Great Satan, to shore up the beleaguered Iraqi government against the savage ISIS jihadists. Iran already has sent 2,000 advance troops to Iraq.

Kerry also said U.S. unilateral air and drone strikes against the ISIS “may well be” an option.

Last Saturday, June 14, U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel ordered an aircraft carrier moved into the Persian Gulf.

jihadist with Stinger missileJihadist with Stinger missile

Today, unnamed Obama administration officials with access to the latest U.S. intelligence on Iraq told Fox News it “appears likely/probable” that ISIS militants got hold of U.S.-made Stinger missiles from Iraqi army bases they have taken over in recent days. The Stinger missile is a shoulder-fired surface-to-air weapon that is used against aircraft.

Iraqi intelligence officials said ISIS fighters managed to take control of two big weapons depots late last week holding some 400,000 items, including AK-47 rifles, rockets and rocket-propelled grenades, artillery shells and mortars. A quarter of the stockpiles were quickly sent to Syria in order to help ISIS militants there.

According to a report from the West Point Combating Terrorism Center, the ISIS “now possesses scores of Iraqi military equipment originally provided by the United States, from Humvees and cargo vehicles to small arms.”

In addition, after taking over Mosul, the second most populous city in Iraq, ISIS is now the richest terror group in the world from looting US$429 million and a large quantity of gold bullion from Mosul’s central bank.

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

No Christians left in Mosul, Iraq

A USA Today/Pew Poll from January 2014 shows that Americans now believe by a 50%-38% margin that war against Iraq and the subsequent U.S. occupation (2003-2011) was stupid.

And the events of the last few days in Iraq are proving those Americans to be right.

One after another city in Iraq has fallen to the ISIS jihadists, which means:

  • 4,487 of our soldiers died for nothing.
  • 32,226 of our soldiers got wounded, some having lost their limbs, for nothing.
  • More than $845 billion of taxpayers’ money was spent for nothing.

ISIS territoriesThe Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is a terrorist organization linked to Al-Qaeda and in control of key areas of northwest Syria. In other words, the ISIS are also part of the Syrian “rebels” whom Obama’s CIA is funding and training. (See “Insanity: Obama admin considering closer ties with Syrian jihadists”; “CIA expands Obama-approved training of Syrian militants”; and “Pulitzer-award journalist says Obama admin made up intelligence for war on Syria”.)

On top of it all, Christians are fleeing from Iraq, knowing full well what life under the ISIS would mean.

ISIS beheadingISIS butchers are leaving roads lined with decapitated police and soldiers

Under Saddam Hussein, Christians at least lived in peace in Iraq. But there isn’t a Christian left in the city of Mosul today.

Zenit.org reports, June 11, 2014, that speaking to the Catholic charity Aid to the Church in Need, Mosul’s Chaldean Archbishop Amel Nona gave a graphic account of the Islamist take-over of Mosul and the people’s desperate struggle to flee to safety.

Nona said he thought Mosul’s last remaining Christians had left Mosul that until 2003, had been home to 35,000 faithful.

The Christians are among 500,000 thought to have fled Mosul, which was overthrown Tuesday, June 10. That event is now followed by news of militant attacks on the Iraqi city of Tikrit, 95 miles north of the capital Baghdad.

Describing reports of attacks to four churches and a monastery in Mosul, the archbishop, 46, said: “We received threats… [and] now all the faithful have fled the city. I wonder if they will ever return there.”

The archbishop, who in the ensuing crisis sought sanctuary in Tal Kayf, a village two miles from Mosul, described how the local community was doing its best to provide for crowds of people flooding out of the city and into the surrounding Nineveh plains, where there are a number of ancient Christian villages.

“Up at 5am yesterday [Tuesday, 10th June] morning we welcomed families on the run and we have tried to find accommodation in schools, classrooms and empty houses. We have never seen anything like this – a large city such as Mosul attacked and in chaos.”

He said that in the 11 years following the 2003 US-led overthrow of Iraq’s President Saddam Hussein, Christians in Mosul had declined from 35,000 to 3,000 and that “now there is probably no one left.”

BBC reports have described ISIS ambitions to create an Islamist caliphate spreading from northern Iraq across to northwest Syria.

From ISIS-controlled regions in Syria have come reports of Christians being asked to pay the Islamic Jaziya tax and pressure to convert to Islam.

Many thousands of Christians have fled the region.

See also “Attacked by Muslims, Christianity is going extinct in Middle East

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

Triple amputee veteran’s withering letter to Obama

Senior Airman, Brian Kolfage Jr., is the most severely wounded Airman in US history—a triple amputee.

On September 11, 2004, while serving his second deployment in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Brian Kolfage lost both his legs and an arm when a 107 mm rocket exploded three feet from the Airman, throwing him into a wall of sandbags.

Brian Kolfage

Kolfage miraculously survived the blast and after eleven months at Walter Reed Medical Center, he returned to serve in the Air Force at Davis Monthan AFB in Tucson, Arizona. Kolfage is no longer on active duty and receives monthly VA benefits compensation for the wounds he received serving our country.

Incredibly, Kolfage was informed last year by the Veterans Administration Debt Management Center that he would be back charged $4825.00 because, according to the VA, they had been overpaying Airman Kolfage for several years and they want their money back.

Brian Kolfage1Brian Kolfage was awarded the Purple Heart 

Here’s Brian Kolfage’s letter to the POS on Presidents’ Day, February 17, 2014, pointing out Obama’s hypocrisy and privileged elitist upbringing and schooling. (I colored the words and phrases in dark red.)

My Open Letter to Obama on Presidents day.

I nearly died in a war that you and most of your colleagues supported overwhelmingly, including the two presidents who came before you. Many citizens may not agree with waging war in Iraq to free the oppressed Iraqi citizens, but it’s something that warriors like myself have zero control over. I joined to serve my country and to better my life. I’ve seen things that you could never imagine, and they have made me the person I am today.

Mr. Obama, even though we share extreme opposite views, we have one thing in common, we both attended school in Hawaii. However, that’s where the similarities end. You see, as you attended your exclusive, private school, I would ride my bike to Kaimuki High school in one of the roughest areas in Hawaii every morning and would ride past Punahou, the exclusive private school you attended. I would notice the Bentleys, Maserati’s, and fancy foreign cars that all the kids were dropped off in; wow it must have been extremely rough in Hawaii living that life, right? I could only imagine what it was like to have that kind of money. Fortunately for you, not many people are aware of the school and the upper classcitizens who attended it. The tuition to attend your exclusive, private school was more than it cost me to obtain a Bachelor’s degree in Architecture from the University of Arizona. You talk a big game when it comes to financial inequality, yet I’m quite sure you have no idea what it’s truly like to have sacrifice. You were one of the elitist children in Hawaii.

After High School, we each chose very different paths. You were able to attend Ivy League schools, and I sought out a military career to in hopes of earning a degree. What we have in life as children usually sets the tone for what we will face later in life that will make us successful. I worked to get where I am today, and YOU WERE HANDED IT….Mr. Inequality.

I volunteered to go to Iraq on both of my deployments, and the second time I begged to go even after I wasn’t selected, which ultimately got me placed on the team where I would lose both legs and my dominant arm. I’ve never asked myself was losing 3 limbs in a war worth it, even though many Americans were against it.

I am frequently reminded of the many young Iraqi children who would beg me for water, food, and toys while I was stationed in Iraq. Children, who in all aspects made the poorest of poor American children look rich. You have no idea what it really means to be poor. It’s laughable that you, who would have no idea what it means to be poor would so frequently play the inequality card.

While I was in Iraq, our mission was to liberate the Iraqi citizens from a tyrant and that’s what we did. Never forget, it was your people who sent us there, like the Clintons, John Kerry, Nancy Pelosi & Carl Levin. However, since the day you busted onto the scene you’ve been talking about ending the war and pulling the troops out, not understanding the blood sweat and tears that so many Americans and Iraqi’s invested. And with complete disregard for every life sacrificed, every limb lost, and every broken family, you bailed on our mission to pursue an agenda that was completely centered on your re-election in 2012. If you didn’t bail on Iraq you were worried that you may not get re-elected and that’s a fact. Just before elections on Oct 11, 2012 you said “Al Qaeda is on the run and Osama bin Laden is dead.” Look at Iraq now, they are in shambles and the Al Qaeda flag is flying freely. Clearly, you’re unfit for duty as a Commander in Chief. You put your own agenda ahead of America’s agenda, and now you have single handedly ruined and destroyed nearly everything we gained in Iraq. It clearly means nothing to you, because the only thing that you’ve personally invested in that country was a promise to bail on them. However, people like me gave limbs, friends have died, and we’ve watched families destroyed by war’s aftermath.

I’m not placing blame on you for the war, I’m placing blame on you for destroying what we’ve worked so hard to build. You’re not a leader, you’re a community organizer. A leader would have stood up regardless of the situation and put America’s agenda first and that is ensuring a secure Iraq even after 10 years of war. But, you placed Barack first, just as Robert Gates confirmed in his new book. I can’t help but think of those poor kids who I gave water and toys to 11 years ago. They’re probably 15 or 16 years old now, and I can only imagine what it’s like for them to have their nation being torn apart yet again; all because of your poor leadership qualities. Regardless of why we went to Iraq, its water under the bridge. We went there, we waged war, and we not only owed it to our KIA’s but we owed it to the citizens of Iraq. We invaded their country and turned it upside down, and you bailed on them. You bailed on our soldiers and you’ve wasted every death and every limb, it’s all for nothing. And to make matters worse you blame others for your failures

You’re just another elitist rich thug who’s pretended to live the rough life growing up in the inner-city. You’re only worried about your own agenda and furthering your party instead of taking care of Americans. Your inability to be a leader at some of the most critical points has caused both of our wars to fail. You’ve been a joke to most of our veteran community and we have no faith in your ability to lead.

Senior Airman Ret Brian Kolfage USAF

Interestingly, Kolfage’s letter posted on Secrets of the Fed received 1315 thumbs up and 3130 thumbs down. I gather from some of the comments I’ve read that the thumbs down votes are by readers who think the United States should never have gone into Iraq in the first place.

See also:

H/t FOTM’s Wild Bill Alaska.

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

The contempt U.S. elites have for our soldiers

Exhibit A: 

Kerry tongueKerry flicks his snake tongue

On October 30, 2006, then Senator John Kerry was a headline speaker at a campaign rally being held for Democratic California gubernatorial candidate Phil Angelides at Pasadena City College in Pasadena, California. Speaking to an audience composed mainly of college students, Kerry said, beginning at the 0:17 mark:
“We’re here to talk about education, and I want to say something. Well, education … If you make the most of it, study hard, do your homework and make an effort to be smart, you can do well. If you don’t, you can get stuck in Iraq.
[youtube=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHka6cRua68]
Kerry almost became president and commander in chief. He is now President Lucifer’s minion as U.S. Secretary of State.

Exhibit B:

Henry Kissinger
According to the blog Jesus Is Savior, then Secretary of State Henry Kissinger is quoted in Kiss the Boys Goodbye as saying, “Military men are just dumb stupid animals to be used as pawns in foreign policy.”
Kissinger was National Security Advisor (1969-1975), then concurrently Secretary of State (1973-1977) in the Nixon and Ford administrations, after which he ran his lucrative international consulting firm, Kissinger Associates.
Although the POWs he abandoned no doubt are long dead, Kissinger still lives. He is 90 years old.
POW4
Kiss the Boys Goodbye is the bestselling exposé of a major political scandal by two award-winning journalists Monica Jensen-Stevenson and William H. Stevenson. The book reveals heartbreaking evidence of American POWs abandoned in Vietnam, of official obstruction and missing files, censored testimony and thinly veiled threats from government sources. Monica had been a producer at CBS’s Sixty Minutes for 5 years.
Here are screenshots I took from Amazon’s free sample of Kiss the Boys Goodbye — on the duplicity of Kissinger and the U.S. government:
POWsPOWs1POWs2 USMC PFC Robert GarwoodPOWs3
~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

After thousands of U.S. soldiers paid with their lives, Iraq again descends into violence

Arlington CemeteryArlington Cemetery

The costs of the Iraq War — the U.S.-led invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq, 2003-2011 — to America are steep. They include:

  • 4,487 of our soldiers (not including civilian contractors) were killed.
  • 32,226 soldiers were wounded.
  • More than $845 billion of taxpayers’ money spent.

But now we are told that Iraq, once again, is spiraling into out-of-control violence.

Pamela Dockins reports for Voice of America (via GlobalSecurity.org), September 19, 2013, that Iraq is grappling with its worst violence in years with almost daily bombings and attacks undermining the country’s fragile framework and rivaling the dark days of civil unrest in 2007 and 2008.

The violence has escalated steadily after U.S. troops largely pulled out of the country at the end of 2011. Civilian deaths in Iraq have more than doubled in the last year, according to statistics from the United Nations Assistance Mission, from 2,000 in 2012 to 4,800 in 2013.

Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki appealed for help this week. In a televised speech on Wednesday, he urged “citizens, politicians and journalists” to support security forces as they try to chase down what he called “the terrorists.”

But analysts say much more than terrorism is at play. The violence is largely sectarian, fueled by many complicating factors including a political deadlock in Baghdad and a spillover of al-Qaida activity from the conflict in Syria.

The Iraqi government has been stalled for months amid a Sunni-Shi’ite political and social divide. Center for Strategic and International Studies analyst Anthony Cordesman said Maliki may have contributed to the unrest when he moved broadly to consolidate power in his Shi’ite-dominated government, leaving Sunnis feeling disenfranchised.

Cordesman, who co-authored a September report on Iraq’s violence, said the unrest is also fueled by social discontent brought on by high unemployment, little industry growth, and a poor distribution of oil revenue amid a dispute between Baghdad and the Kurdish minority in the oil-rich north.

Besides internal strife, Iraq is facing a fallout from Syria’s civil war.

Carnegie Middle East Center analyst Paul Salem said Iraq’s Sunnis may feel emboldened by the Sunni opposition in Syria: “If the Sunnis in Syria make more headway there, the Sunnis in Iraq feel that that might empower them to push back against Maliki and a sort of Shi’ite – dominated government.”

Salem said al-Qaida militants* fuel unrest in both countries: “Al-Qaida takes advantage of discontent among the Sunni community [in Iraq] and it can express the more radical discontent, the more militant discontent as in Syria. The protests began as unarmed and rather civil. As the protests turned into an armed conflict, al-Qaida certainly found a foothold.”

*Note from Eowyn: These are the same al-Qaida jihadists whom Obama is arming in Syria.

Iraqis in general say they fear a descent into chaos, which could lead to further destabilization in an already volatile Middle East.

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

Obama’s Foreign Policy Doctrine

Every modern U.S. President has a doctrine that articulates his worldview and foreign policy.

As an example, reacting to America’s Vietnam War experience, the Nixon Doctrine was that the United States would no longer be the police for every and all in Asia. Henceforth, the countries of Asia-Pacific would be responsible for their own defense.

George W. Bush’s doctrine was that warfare is fundamentally altered by the Islamic terrorist attacks on the U. S. homeland on Sept. 11, 2001, and by the changed nature of America’s enemies from state actors to include non-government terrorist groups. As a result, America has the right to undertake preemptive attacks when and where we identify a terrorist threat. It is the Bush Doctrine that justifies our wars in Iraq and Afghanistan although neither government nor country had first attacked the United States.

Foreign affairs pundits have noted the peculiar lack of an Obama Doctrine although his first (and last) term is already drawing to a close.

Never fear! Fellowship of the Minds has discovered the secret Obama Doctrine!

The Obama Doctrine of the Irritating Bowing Syndrome

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

Moxie has a prayer request

One of FOTM’s regular commenters, moxielouise, asks us to pray for her friend Z, a former Marine who was deployed to Iraq.

After he left the service and returned home, he couldn’t find work in America. So he’s now back in Iraq, in a dangerous area, working for a private contractor.

No U.S. troops remain in Iraq since the last 13,000 U.S. troops were withdrawn in December 2011. But our troops are still in that hell-hole called Afghanistan. Our war there is now the longest war in U.S. history.

Please say a prayer for Z and for all our soldiers serving in danger zones across the world — that God sends His angels to watch over and protect them.

Thank you.

~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0
 

Has this anti-Obama billboard gone too far?

Kurt Nimmo reports for Infowars.com, July 28, 2012, that a billboard on Franklin Road in Caldwell, Idaho, compares and equates the actions of the POS’s foreign policies to the acts of mass murderer James Holmes.
Holmes is the suspect who shot  12 people and wounded 58 in a Century theater in Aurora, Colorado. The billboard implies that Obama too is a mass murderer because his foreign policy led to the deaths of thousands — including American soldiers — in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen, and other nations targeted in the so-called War On Terror, which the White House had declared to have ended, yet paradoxically the wars continue.
Here’s the billboard, below which you can sound off on our poll:


H/t FOTM’s beloved Miss May!
~Eowyn

Please follow and like us:
0