Tag Archives: Centers for Disease Control

Deadly Ebola virus jumps from Africa’s jungles to urban centers

UPDATE (Aug. 29, 2014):

See “Ebola out of control: dogs eating Ebola corpses in Liberia

UPDATE (Aug. 3, 2014):

See “Can out-of-control Ebola epidemic hit America?” and “Obama signs Executive Order for detention of Americans showing signs of ‘respiratory illness’

Update (June 21, 2014):

The Director of Operations of the charity group Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) says the ebola epidemic is now “out of control” in West Africa. Dr Bart Janssens warns that the epidemic would spread to more countries, unless there’s a stronger international response. (Source)

Ebola virusEbola virus

Ebola is one of the world’s deadliest viruses with a high fatality rate of 60 to as high as 90%.

There is no vaccine. No cure.

First identified in 1976 in the sub-Saharan jungles of Zaire and the Sudan, Ebola was transmitted to humans via the blood or bodily fluids of an infected fruit bat or monkey.

Symptoms typical of a viral infection begin 2 days to 3 weeks after contacting the virus — those of fever, throat and muscle pains, and headaches. Then it gets worse, with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and decreased functioning of the liver and kidneys. Then it gets even worse. The infected starts hemorrhaging or bleeding from the body’s mucous membranes — mouth (gums), nose, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina.

Ebola1The present 2014 Ebola outbreak began in February in the remote jungles of Guinea in West Africa, then spread quickly, crossing the borders into Liberia and Sierra Leone.

As of April 10, 157 suspected and confirmed cases and 101 deaths have been reported in Guinea, 22 suspected cases in Liberia including 14 deaths, 8 suspected cases in Sierra Leone including 6 deaths, and 1 suspected case in Mali.

In the past, an Ebola outbreak was quickly contained because lack of roads and transportation in rural Africa helped to quarantine the infection. But Richard Engel reports for NBC News, April 14, 2014, that now, for the first time since the deadly virus first appeared 38 years ago, Ebola has jumped from the jungle to an urban area — Conakry, the capital of Guinea, with a population of 2 million.

[youtube=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCK4sJ2I1-U]

Dr. Jagatic described it as the biggest known Ebola outbreak an urban area: “It’s probably one of the more complicated outbreaks because it is occurring in a very densely-populated urban area, unlike previous outbreaks.”

Guinea is trying to contain the virus by prohibiting passengers with flu like symptoms — fever, diarrhea, or joint pain — from boarding plane flights.

Health officials do not expect the virus to go global. Dr. Anthony Fauci of the U.S. National Institutes of Health says, by its methods of transmission, it’s “very unlikely” that Ebola will spread to the United States.

Human-to-human transmission occurs via direct contact with blood or bodily fluids (from diarrhea or vomiting) from an infected person, or by contact with contaminated medical equipment such as needles. Since the virus continues to live inside a dead person, transmission can also occur via embalming an infected dead person. Men who survive may be able to transmit the disease sexually via sperm for nearly 2 months.

In late 2012, Canadian scientists discovered that the deadliest form of the virus could be transmitted by air between species, from pigs to monkeys without any direct contact between them, leading to fears that airborne transmission could be contributing to the wider spread of the disease in parts of Africa.

Some scientists believe that the Plague of Athens, which wiped out about a third of its inhabitants during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.), may have been caused by Ebola.

Given the lethal nature of Ebola, and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has the potential to be weaponized for use in biological warfare.

~Eowyn

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1 of 5 Young Americans Engage in Anal Sex

The human body is not designed to accommodate anal intercourse.
Whereas the vagina has natural lubricants and is composed of a mucus membrane with a multi-layer stratified squamous epithelium that allows it to endure friction without damage and to resist the immunological actions caused by semen and sperm, the anus is a delicate mechanism of small muscles that comprise an “exit-only” passage. With repeated trauma, friction and stretching, the sphincter loses its tone and its ability to maintain a tight seal.
Consequently, anal intercourse leads to leakage of fecal material that can easily become chronic. Moreover, the intestine has only a single layer of cells separating it from blood. Therefore, any organisms that are introduced into the rectum have a much easier time establishing a foothold for infection than they would in a vagina. The single layer tissue cannot withstand the friction associated with penile penetration, resulting in traumas that expose both participants to blood, organisms in feces, and a mixing of bodily fluids.
Furthermore, ejaculate has components that are immunosuppressive, designed to allow the sperm to evade the immune defenses of the female. The fragility of the anus and rectum, along with the immunosuppressive effect of ejaculate, make anal-genital intercourse a most efficient manner of transmitting HIV and a whole host of other infections. [For a list of the diseases, go here.]

A real place in France, but pronounced "on-new". LOL


Despite the health hazards of anal sex, Reuters reports, March 3, 2011, that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said in 2006-2008, 21% of U.S. young men and 20% of young women said they have had anal sex.
The report did find that the number of U.S. teenagers and young adults who say they are abstaining from sex has slightly increased. Among Americans ages 15 to 24, 29% of women and 27% of men reported not having any sexual contact compared with 22% in 2002.
At the same time, however, more young women report having sexual contact with each other. The CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics found a growing number of young women who said they have had some form of sex with another woman, rising to 13% in the latest survey, from about 12% in the 2002 survey. In contrast to the number of young men reporting same-sex encounters falling from 5% to 4% over the same time period.

Although more young Americans are abstaining from sex, there is an overall increase in reports of the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia, especially among 15 to 19-year-olds. The bacterial infection is the most common STD in the United States and can lead to complications if untreated. Some people have no symptoms, making it easier to spread.

Of youth aged 15 to 24 who said they have had sex, nearly 63% of women and 64% of men had oral sex compared to nearly 69 percent in 2002.
The CDC’s findings for 2006 to 2008 are based on interviews with about 13,500 men and women ages 15 to 44. Overall, it found few changes in the nation’s sexual patterns compared to CDC’s last survey in 2002.
~Eowyn

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