Scientists Say They Can Store Data in Living Bacteria

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I don’t have the science training to understand how data can be stored in the DNA of living cells. Heck, I don’t even understand how data can be stored in silicon chips! But this research, if it actually works, is mind-blowing. I can’t even begin to ponder the implications….
H/t my ol’ friend Sol.
~Eowyn

Hong Kong researchers store data in bacteria
By Judith Evans (AFP) – Jan 9, 2011
The US’ national archives occupy more than 500 miles…of shelving; France’s archives stretch for more than 100 miles of shelves, as do Britain’s. Yet a group of students at Hong Kong’s Chinese University are making strides towards storing such vast amounts of information in an unexpected home: the E.coli bacterium better known as a potential source of serious food poisoning.
“This means you will be able to keep large datasets for the long term in a box of bacteria in the refrigerator,” said Aldrin Yim, a student instructor on the university’s biostorage project, a 2010 gold medallist in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)’s prestigious iGEM competition.
Biostorage — the art of storing and encrypting information in living organisms — is a young field, having existed for about a decade.
In 2007, a team at Japan’s Keio University said they had successfully encoded the equation that represents Einstein’s theory of relativity, E=MC2, in the DNA of a common soil bacterium. They pointed out that because bacteria constantly reproduce, a group of the single-celled organisms could store a piece of information for thousands of years.
But the Hong Kong researchers have leapt beyond this early step, developing methods to store more complex data and starting to overcome practical problems which have lent weight to sceptics who see the method as science fiction.
The group has developed a method of compressing data, splitting it into chunks and distributing it between different bacterial cells, which helps to overcome limits on storage capacity. They are also able to “map” the DNA so information can be easily located. This opens up the way to storing not only text, but images, music, and even video within cells.
As a storage method it is extremely compact — because each cell is minuscule, the group says that one gram of bacteria could store the same amount of information as 450 2,000 gigabyte hard disks.
They have also developed a three-tier security fence to encode the data, which may come as welcome news to US diplomats who have seen their thoughts splashed over the Internet thanks to WikiLeaks. “Bacteria can’t be hacked,” points out Allen Yu, another student instructor. “All kinds of computers are vulnerable to electrical failures or data theft. But bacteria are immune from cyber attacks. You can safeguard the information.” The team have even coined a word for this field — biocryptography — and the encoding mechanism contains built-in checks to ensure that mutations in some bacterial cells do not corrupt the data as a whole.
Professor Chan Ting Fung, who supervised the student team, told AFP that practical work in the field — fostered by MIT, who have helped develop standards enabling researchers to collaborate — was in its early stages. But he said: “What the students did was to try it out and make sure some of the fundamental principles are actually achievable.”
The Hong Kong group’s work may have a more immediate application. The techniques they use — removing DNA from bacterial cells, manipulating them using enzymes and returning them to a new cell — are similar to those used to create genetically modified foods. But rather than changing the building blocks of an organism, the Hong Kong group allows extra information to piggyback on the DNA of the cell, after checking their changes against a master database to make sure they do not have accidental toxic effects. 
Their work could enable extra information to be added to a genetically modified crop in the form of a “bio barcode”, Chan said. “For example, a company that makes a GM tomato that grows extra large with a gene that promotes growth — on top of that we can actually encode additional information like safety protocols, things that are not directly related to the biological system.” Other types of information, like copyright and design history, could help to monitor the spread of GM crops, he said. “It’s kind of a safety net for synthetic organisms,” said Wong Kit Ying, from the student team.
Beyond this, Chan and the students are evangelical about the future possibilities of synthetic biology. “The field is getting popular because of the energy crisis, environmental pollution, climate change. They are thinking that a biological system will be a future solution to those — as alternative energy sources, as a remedy for pollution. For these, micro-organisms are the obvious choice,” Chan said.
One type of bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, can even survive nuclear radiation. “Bacteria are everywhere: they can survive on things that are unthinkable to humans. So we can make use of this,” Chan said.
So is it possible that a home computer could one day consist of a dish filled with micro-organisms? The group dismisses concerns that this could be dangerous, pointing out that despite E.coli’s poor reputation, they use an altered form that cannot exist outside a rich synthetic medium. In fact, says Chan, while safety rules are strict, more measures are taken to protect the bacteria from contamination than to protect the researchers from the bacteria.
However, Yim admitted that while the group’s work is a “foundational advance”, a petri dish PC is not likely to be on the market in the coming years, not least because the method of retrieving the data requires experts in a laboratory. “It’s possible,” he said, “but there’s a long way to go.”

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0 responses to “Scientists Say They Can Store Data in Living Bacteria

  1. While my science background is in biological sciences, I can offer a simple summary of what this is about. Incidentally, someone remarked about thirty years ago there is enough information in a single human cell to recreate the universe, if need be. Talk about human critters playing God!
    While this is a formidable achievement, it is an equally daunting task to be able to retrieve the data and then replicate it, all w/o errors. It is likely that accurate recovery and reassembly of the data requires as complex an environment as the one that performed the encoding, perhaps more so, as the reassembly must be flawless, else errors creep in to contaminate the goal. It is just this latter problem that is a very common limiting factor on what can be accomplished at what rate of development. So we won’t be trying or doing this at home for some time yet!

     
    • Fascinating, Joseph! With your biological science background, what do you foresee are the practical and especially ethical implications of this?

       
  2. OK, A GREAT QUESTION! LET’S LOOK AT THE PROBABILITIES OF WHAT MOTIVATES HUMANS TO DEVELOP SUCH A TECHNIQUE. I HATE the “caps lock” key, especially as a two-fingered typist I can’t look up until it’s often too late to go back and do over a sizable amount of writing! 🙂
    Anyhow, when universities that do leading edge research decide to privatise some or all of the department’s expenses, this ultimately puts them at the not-so-tender mercies of the corporate sponsor. The profit motive often combines with a scientist’s basic amoral, “pure” approach to research and tends to promote those specific applications which create the quickest return. You can see what this can lead to, and all-too-often has.
    I’ve read more than one scientist who expressed regrets over what happened to the “pure” research s/he was doing, when it was sent down a path s/he never intended. I believe Einstein once –at least– remarked that had he known that his E=Mc2 would end in a nuclear weapon, he would not have published it. Most likely someone else would have made this discovery eventually, but the point is his regret. Well, expect the same here, along with what good comes out of it.
    No doubt the initial push to further delineate and develop applications will be in glowing terms of the positive benefits, but that’s how all good intentions begin, isn’t it, before taking a detour to Hell. Dr Weaver writes at some length about this, by the bye, in “Ideas Have Consequences”. Ad lucrum per scientia (toward wealth through science), but I digress –sort of!
    There’s mention in the article about storing archives that now require hundreds of miles of shelving. Fine, this looks to be A Good Idea, more efficient and all that, but what might be the unintended consequences?
    ” “This means you will be able to keep large datasets for the long term in a box of bacteria in the refrigerator,” said Aldrin Yim, a student instructor on the university’s biostorage project.” Truly a novel concept! The so-called genius bunch in Silicon Valley who brought us all our nifty computers and other whiz-bangs were somehow not smart enough to warn state and national utility companies to ramp up electricity production by a factor of at least 25% to enable all these devices to function w/o overloading the existing grids. So now the US has an immense infrastructure gap and we experience outages more commonly and for longer.
    An unintended consequence, just as DDT [still the best way to control malarial mosquitoes] hailed as the end of malaria, was later found to eventually get into avian food chains and cause immense fatalities of their chicks. “a world of made is not a world of born,” wrote e e cummings, in what I feel is the greatest line ever written in English, to date.
    So if a power outage lasts long enough, all those nifty chilled bacterial data banks may just decay into nothing more useful than compost. Oh well, there’s still a tad of utility in that, albeit a might pricey way to make compost!
    Ad lucrum per scientia is corollary to Bacon’s “Knowledge is power”, his first step toward a new world order of the ages, and may be equally beguiling as we go down that primrose path.

     
  3. Wow, Joseph, thank you for the relatively easily understood explanation. 🙂 My only strong suit in science was chemistry, ie, cooking, as in gourmet. LOL! The problem I keep seeing, over and over, is that “they” keep looking at best case scenario. Too many believe that their perception of the worst case scenario really is the worst, when more times than not it is simply a bad scenario, not even close to the worst. Perhaps the real problem lies with too many people sure in their knowledge, too many unwilling to say, “I don’t know.” Growing up in a home where I don’t know was not considered an acceptable answer, I understand the desire to have the answers, but sooner or later you have to grow up and acceptable responsibility. Just because it can be done doesn’t mean it should be done.

     
  4. Although this is all remarkable, my tendency is to use the quote onced again of Alexander Pope, “The mark of an intelligent man is one who realizes his limitations.” We do have limitations and this scientific process also has limitations-it is clear it can be used unethically. Thank you, Eowyn, for this post, and thank you, Joseph, for your explanations.

     
  5. Well, when these single cell organisms reproduce there are mutations occurring, simple “errors” and/or major “errors”, that at long term will lead to a great amount of “change” in the “stored data”. This cell storage medium may be useful for short term purposes. Great inspiration for science fiction novelists though.

     
  6. Thank you for the comments above. Both contain very smart references and insights. Yes, humans do have a profound problem w/knowing where or where NOT to go. Our natal tendency is to ‘go fer it!’ and deal w/the consequences later, our hubris being that we’ll have the ability to manage it. Think ‘Death of the Gulf and Gulf Stream/Loop’ for a recent example, perhaps the worst ever.
    I believe that women are inherently more intelligent than men [Please note I am NOT saying ‘intellectual’], and this is why I hired them to work in and manage my retail nurseries and book-keeping. Men were rarely as good inside a nursery, but because of greater muscle mass, better on my landscape design/build teams. Women could do the same work, but certain aspects were more difficult due to the greater muscle needed. But brains wins over brawn any day!
    This nano-development by the bye is a continuum of the discussions we had in the Sixties about the eventual merging of biology and electro-mechanical fields into what we called “soft machines” and cross-over applications. These became our current androids and sophisticated devices for patients who needed intelligent prosthetics, etc. More of this will be developed and all for the good, unless we wander into unintentional consequences as a result.

     

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