Gulf Oil May Reach Atlantic This Summer

Headquartered in Boulder, Colorado, the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is a nonprofit consortium of more than 75 universities offering Ph.D.s in the atmospheric and related sciences. UCAR also manages the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
Yesterday, June 3, the UCAR released a detailed computer modeling study that indicates oil from the massive spill in the Gulf of Mexico might soon extend along thousands of miles of the Atlantic coast and open ocean as early as this summer.

Oil trajectory after 130 days.

Here are excerpts from the UCAR’s news release:

“I’ve had a lot of people ask me, ‘Will the oil reach Florida?’” says NCAR scientist Synte Peacock, who worked on the study. “Actually, our best knowledge says the scope of this environmental disaster is likely to reach far beyond Florida, with impacts that have yet to be understood.”
The computer simulations indicate that, once the oil in the uppermost ocean has become entrained in the Gulf of Mexico’s fast-moving Loop Current, it is likely to reach Florida’s Atlantic coast within weeks. It can then move north as far as about Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, with the Gulf Stream, before turning east. Whether the oil will be a thin film on the surface or mostly subsurface due to mixing in the uppermost region of the ocean is not known.
The scientists used a powerful computer model to simulate how a liquid released at the spill site would disperse and circulate…. “The modeling study is analogous to taking a dye and releasing it into water, then watching its pathway,” Peacock says. The dye tracer used in the model has no actual physical resemblance to true oil. Unlike oil, the dye has the same density as the surrounding water, does not coagulate or form slicks, and is not subject to chemical breakdown by bacteria or other forces.
Peacock and her colleagues stress that the simulations are not a forecast because it is impossible to accurately predict the precise location of the oil weeks or months from now. Instead, the simulations provide an envelope of possible scenarios for the oil dispersal. The timing and course of the oil slick will be affected by regional weather conditions and the ever-changing state of the Gulf’s Loop Current—neither of which can be predicted more than a few days in advance. The dilution of the oil relative to the source will also be impacted by details such as bacterial degradation, which are not included in the simulations.
The model simulations show that a liquid released in the surface ocean at the spill site is likely to slowly spread as it is mixed by the ocean currents until it is entrained in the Loop Current. At that point, speeds pick up to about 40 miles per day, and when the liquid enters the Atlantic’s Gulf Stream it can travel at speeds up to about 100 miles per day, or 3,000 miles per month.

To read the entire UCAR news release, CLICK HERE.
Below is an animation showing one scenario of how oil released at the location of the Deepwater Horizon disaster on April 20 in the Gulf of Mexico may move in the upper 65 feet of the ocean. This is not a forecast, but rather, it illustrates a likely dispersal pathway of the oil for roughly four months following the spill. It assumes oil spilling continuously from April 20 to June 20. The colors represent a dilution factor ranging from red (most concentrated) to beige (most diluted).


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0 responses to “Gulf Oil May Reach Atlantic This Summer

  1. And, remember, loyal little Democrat boys and girls out there, what do we say when someone asks? “It’s all Bush’s fault!” Gosh, I knew you could!

  2. You might like this column from “No Frakking Consensus”… a tidbit:
    ” …a few facts:
    1. Thirty-one years ago, in June 1979, an oil well off the coast of Mexico blew. It discharged oil into the Gulf of Mexico for nearly 10 months before it was finally capped. The world did not collapse. The ecosystem was not permanently harmed.
    2. In early 1991, retreating Iraqi troops set fire to more than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells and then buried landmines nearby. While doomsters predicted it would take as long as a decade to extinguish these fires, all were brought under control within eight months. Environmental damage was extensive, but many of the most dramatic predictions – such as the one that postulated the entire planet would suffer effects similar to a nuclear winter – did not come to pass… ”
    more here:

    • That’s encouraging, NZ Lisa! Thanks for the link. 😉

    • I have heard about those other events and yes, the world will survive. It’s just saddening though to see the wildlife that is suffering and how many lives will be affected (economically).
      Glad to know The Traitor is now “furious” about this. Will he be golfing tomorrow to take out that frustration?

  3. 9-11 the BP well casing!
    … the only answer to the BP predicament, which smells more and more like a new Southern Strategy, is an ironic one …
    thermite the BP well casing!
    Failure to implement this utterly simple solution, which cannot fail, amounts to an intentional act of war. In asymmetric warfare, failure to defend, by the Pentagon, against corporate-sponsored state-covered-up terrorism is a positive act of treason. (This goes well beyond any possible retaliation by BP against a handful of Pentagon brass who may be balking at opening up a third front in our apparent plan to foment perpetual war against the world, the sole beneficiaries of which will be … BP, and its largest customer for the next century, China, and of course the British bankers who own BP and China! The problem of Who China? is not an immaterial one. The post-Kissinger-Bush central banking system of China was financed with debt frauds acquired by “our” Federal Reserve bankers, although admittedly the central banking system of China is run by agentura, who are British loyalists appointed by the Federal Reserve.)
    The technological problem is called momentum, and the well casing organizes it. That is the real reason a “shut-off” valve solution will never work — try to imagine a water hammer problem bigger than any you have ever imagined. The steel casing also protects the exposed soils of the bored hole from erosion, and thus prevents eventual collapse of the vertical walls of the bore from gravity.
    As you drill a well, you “drill out” an outer hole with vertical sidewalls in bare earth. Tailings, or drilled soil, is pumped out with a clay-slurry lubricant which is pumped into the well during drilling for lubrication and cooling. Until you encounter bedrock, the sidewalls are loose sedimentary soils and small rocks. They will eventually collapse inward unless a protective, continuously welded, steel casing is inserted right behind the drill bit. Once the well is flowing, the casing also protects the sidewalls from erosion by the upward flows of oil. This is especially important in layers of sedimentary, sandy soils. The bored hole is probably 30″ or so in raw diameter (bit diameter when expanded is 30″). The continuously welded ductile steel casing is probably 21″ in diameter with 1/2″ sidewalls. Actual numbers are irrelevant. Each new section of casing pipe is automatically added onto the installed casing as the latter is lowered into the bored hole during drilling. Thus, the casing follows the bit down the hole, and new sections of casing pipe are welded on, underwater, by an automatic pipe welding machine, as the hole progresses downward. The bit itself is expandable-collapsible, which allows it to be withdrawn from inside the casing. During installation, the drilling bit and well casing are lubricated with a pressurized slurry of clay which keeps the casing pipe from binding to the sidewalls of the bore as it follows the bit down. The bit is driven by a concentric set of smaller pipes and/or shafts inside the casing, or riser pipe.
    The well tip, or point, has reportedly been drilled to 30,000 ft beneath the sea floor. Sorry, the dinosaur theory of oil is disproved right there. The well head on the sea floor is at 5,000 ft. below sea level. According to a recent recent press conference by Admiral Thad Allen, USCG Ret., the technological challenge of building the pressure relief wells is that they will have to exactly intersect with the steel casing at a depth of 20,000 feet. Thus, we know the casing is at least that deep, which is not unusual. It might be that the last 10,000 feet of the bore was drilled straight though solid bedrock, in which case the bore doesn’t need sidewall protection like it does in softer soils up topside. (Typically, soil changes occur in layers … thus, one encounters “lenses” of soft soils, and bedrock-like soils all the way down … layers of soft soil (or gas, or oil) in bedrock are called lenses, as are lenses of bedrock-like material in a layers of soft soils.)
    Based on observed videos of outflow at the orifice, there is not that much pressure differential between the pickup point (deepest point) and the well head, which is under atmospheric pressure plus an additional 5,000 ft of water pressure.
    The solution is to simply remove 20,000+ feet of welded steel casing.
    Without protection from the casing, the sidewalls of the bored hole will begin to erode the sidewalls from the turbulence of the upward flow of fluids. The turbulence will eat out the bare sidewalls, and resulting increase in bore size will cause the flow to lose its upward organized momentum. Secondly, it will cause the vertical sidewalls to slough off and eventually collapse by stages into the hole. Unprotected, as soil sloughs off, the bore hole erodes outward, which slows down (and thus wastes) the upward momentum, which causes more soils to suspend and slough off. Absent protection by the casing wall, the naked sidewalls of the bore will eventually slide back into the hole. An unlimited supply of soil, which contained the well pressure in the first place, will eventually close off the well.
    Breaking the upward momentum of the confined column of oil (slowing down its velocity) is the key factor! Divide and conquer.
    The problem is not the “huge” (lol) pressure at the well point 35,000 ft below sea level. Underground soils, including potentially a 10,000 foot arch of bedrock, are self-supporting structures. They don’t “weigh” or produce uniform pressures like a column of fluid does. Nor is the problem the apparently deminimus pressure differential between the well point and the well head, based on the relatively slow velocity of discharge, which has on an order of magnitude of one to tens of meters per second. I would call the condition steady flowing, that is turbulent after discharge, but subcritical in the 21” riser pipe. Absent a nozzle, which may have been installed to create an artificially dramatic “shooting” condition, for mind-control media-effect purposes, the 21” diameter flow absent the nozzle, is clearly not a shooting or supercritical condition.
    The problem is organized velocity, or momentum. We are dealing with a 30,000 foot long column of incompressible fluid that is flowing inside of the geometrically confined space of the riser pipe. At 1 to 10 meters per second, a column of incompressible fluid 30,000 feet long, has the same momentum (orders of magnitude here) as a freight train, of roughly the equivalent mass “length” if you will, that is also moving at roughly the same speed (1 to 10 miles per hour).
    That kind of momentum presents a significant water-hammer problem. No one is going to stop that kind of momentum by flipping a switch on a shut off valve, or by throwing a few concrete bricks in its path. That kind of momentum is going to ignore (blow off) any solution that tries to instantaneously reduce its velocity down to zero. The energy in the fluid is highly organized within the riser pipe, and that momentum has to be dissipated before the any valve or top hat is going to stop it.
    So, how do we slow down flow that moving column of oil … how do we disorganize its upward momentum?
    The answer is the 9-11 solution … use Thermite (or Thermate) to remove the geometry that confines the fluid and preserves the velocities.
    Amongst its other uses, Thermite was invented for underwater demolition of steel bridge structures. It was also used to melt the 16 core structural columns in each of the towers of the World Trade Center on 9-11-01, each of which were totally melted down to flowing blobs of hot molten steel. In spite of being covered with fresh loads of sand and water, imported by dump trucks every day for 3 months after 9-11, the blobs remained in their molten state. Thermite turned 32 huge structural steel columns, each of which were 54” x 27” in cross section with 5” thick sidewalls, each which also had a lengthwise interior crosspiece that was 6” thick, and each of which were 66 and 2/3 stories tall, into blobs of flowing molten steel, like columns of butter in a microwave oven. When it comes to the task of reducing steel to an uncontained blob of molten steel, Thermite will be on the order of thousands of times MORE POWERFUL than any so-called nuclear option.
    (BTW, I wouldn’t be surprised to learn that Thermite was also used to bring down the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig itself. (What a prophetic name.) The fires on the deck on the drilling rig did not cause the underwater legs of the rig to suddenly give way. Notice how the rig collapsed … it first gave way underwater. Someone pulled the underwater legs out from underneath it. Are we to believe an above water deck fire, which didn’t melt any steel on the deck, somehow melted the steel legs underwater? Just like 9-11, this has got Thermite written all over it.)
    BP-Haliburton started the job with Thermite. So, finish the job the same way. 9-11 the well casing! The ironic solution is the justified one, and the ecological one as well.
    Be it 20,000 feet long, per Thad Allen, or 30,000 feet long … dump Thermite on the casing at the well head, and just keep pouring. The underwater environment will have no effect whatsoever on the exothermic reaction between the weaponized aluminum in the Thermite, and elemental iron in the steel casing. If it starts a perpetual underwater fire at the well head, burning off methane gas at 5000 ft below the sea … great! The activated carbon from incomplete combustion will purify the sea water. Like the steel columns in 9-11, the reaction between the weaponized aluminum and the elemental iron in the steel casing will simply follow the casing all the way down inside the well, melting (smelting?) the casing down to an uncontained blob of molten steel that will eventually cool and lodge somewhere in the boring. Or, the Thermate can keep right on reacting, and the molten blob can go straight on down, all the way to China, for all I care. (Again, the question of “Who China?” is not immaterial. I believe “China” is a partner with BP in this revival of Nixon’s Southern Strategy against the people of North America … China’s role as industrial hegemon, and thus BP’s largest customer, for the coming century was assigned long ago by “the International,” aka the Comintern. China’s banking system is “owned” by Federal Reserve bankers, who used debt fraud against the US Treasury as collateral to setup the modern, post-Kissinger, banking system of so-called “China.” Again, the Who-China question looms ominously over this BP blowout.)
    I would ordinarily hope that the terrorist-sponsoring, war-loving Pentagon, and its media subsidiary, the White House, might give BP and its pro-China wellheads the 9-11 solution that they so richly deserve — Thermite (or Thermate) the BP well casing.
    Unfortunately, the Pentagon has been since its inception, the military headquarters for a supranational bureaucracy of the shadow government, loosely referred to as “the Pentagon-Wall St complex.” The International, as it is also known, reorganized itself into its “Fourth” reincarnation, after a revolutionary paper which Trotsky (nee Bronstein) submitted in 1921 to the prior reincarnation, called the “Third.” Trotsky’s paper justified use of state-sponsored terrorism (that is to really say, corporate-sponsored state-covered-up terrorism) to achieve the world-wide “communist” objective of globalized banker dictatorship, calling for dissolution of family and national values, and extermination of the ideas of the common good and the general welfare. Trotsky’s revolutionary idea, calling on use of state-sponsored terrorism, caused dissolution of the Third International, which was organized on the “milquetoast” principles of Lenin, which has been used to organize the “Second” reincarnation. During the Bolshevik Revolutions, both Lenin and Trotsky received financial support through a then young Herbert Hoover, who was stationed in London and operating a humanitarian relief operation for a handful of Belgian refugees, with a budget of $1B a month, as cover for financing the Bolshevik-Zionist-globalist autrocities of the Russian Revolutions. At Yalta, FDR (who as his very first act as President, only 4 hours into his presidency, issued a Presidential Proclaimation which formally established that We the People were now Public Enemy No. 1 to the bankers, and second, that the first priority of government was to protect not the general welfare or the Constitution, but the debt-frauds of the international bankers) and Stalin agreed that the bureaucracy of the Third had outgrown its post-WW I office buildings in Moscow … thus a new permanent bureaucracy for the supra-national shadow government called the International, would be organized using newer, larger and more secure office space. They agreed that the Fourth reincarnation of the permanent supranational bureaucracy (even a shadow government needs its bureaucracy) should be housed on US soil … whereupon, the CIA and Pentagon complexes were expressly built to design specifications. Since their inceptions, the CIA and Pentagon (and Israel, with official recognition by Truman concurrent with his recognition of the Pentagon) have been worldwide headquarters for the Zionist (=corporatist) agenda for a global communist dictatorship. During the Cold War, the Pentagon (and Mossad) special forces modus operandi was driven by Trotsky’s call for endless acts, worldwide (700+ US military bases), 911-style, of state-sponsored terrorism.
    This BP incident is yet-another-blip in the continuum of history of Pentagon-Wall St. complex-sponsored worldwide terrorism.
    It is also becoming apparent that the Fourth is currently being dissolved. Thus, the Pentagon and the Fourth are no longer considered necessary. Using financing from the Federal Reserve, China has been established as industrial hegemon for the 21st century. It is not by accident then, that both Wall St. and the Pentagon are doing everything they can to intentionally destroy their own creditability. Their creditability is being dissolved, intentionally, as we are steered into a Fifth re-incarnation of the International, which will be a mind-control phase based on asymmetric warfare through control of media and medicine, coming from industrial giants in China, that are owned by the Federal Reserve. Soon enough, we shall learn that Hollywood has moved to Pollywood, in Peking. The excuse will be that stage hands are cheaper.
    The Pentagon and Israel have served their function. Ab initio, they were the military arm of the Comintern, much as the CIA was field intelligence arm, and the CFR was the academic arm. Together, their “job” was to foster and protect the rise of China, as an industrial hegemony owned by the Federal Reserve. The “brass” of the Pentagon and of Israel, both as military subsidiaries of the Joint Chiefs (all are really led by homosexuals, unmanly perverts and cowards, and come under control of the banker-selected Vice-Presidents during our “election” process) know that they must eventually to destroy all memory of the United States and its Constitution and Bill of Rights. The militia mindset of our Constitution and Bill of Rights (based on individual creativity, hue and cry, citizenship and personal responsibility and government accountability) is incompatible with the Israeli-Pentagon mindset of special forces (which is based on terrorism, government anonymity and darkness, and absolute top-down obedience). Under our Constitution, the principle of the general welfare is defined by our Bill of Rights. Under a communist dictatorship, the principle of general welfare is defined by corporation zombies and British (Jewish) pedophiles. What these demented mimickers, the enemy of mankind, seem to forget, is that for a human being, citizenship in the republic is not an option.
    9-11 the BP well casing. With the protective casing thermited down to a molten blob, the vertical sidewalls of the well bore will close up by gravity, and the natural condition will eventually be restored. Refusal to defend, by BP and its agentura, the Pentagon, is a positive act of warfare against the We the People of the United States of America. The ongoing destruction of the credibility of the Pentagon, and of Wall St. and Israel, is not by accident.

    • Someone unnamed experts (see are reportedly trying to say that the oil (lens really) that BP tapped into is at between 20,000 and 70,000 psi pressure, holding a temperature of 400º (which, to give the experts all the advantage, I assume is Celsius).
      A relatively accurate value for the pressure at the bottom of the well can be easily estimated, based on an observed pipe flow of roughly 1 meter per second, or 3.3 fps. Given the reported 21″ nominal pipe (inside) diameter, with a cross sectional area of 2.405 sf, that amounts to roughly 8.0 cfs, or roughly 60 gps (1 cf = 7.49 gal) or 3,600 gpm, or 1.43 bbls per second, or 123,400 bbls per day (1 bbl-oil = 42 gals). This is roughly 1 mil gals, or 1 Exxon Vandeez, every 8 days.
      We have also heard that the oil was discovered at 30,000 ft depth below the ocean floor. Pressure calculations assume the well casing was installed the entire length … thus BO was protecting their investment, by protecting the naked vertical sidewalls of the bored well from erosion and thus eventual collapse into the well, thereby closing it off.
      For a given observed flow, and a given pipe geometry, it is easily possible to calculate the pressure “losses” or “head” required to drive a given fluid through a pipe. The well known and well tested formula is called the Hazens-Williams formula. It is available on the net at
      Using a conservative coefficient of 120 for the ductile iron pipe, and assuming that oil at 400º C has a viscosity that is roughly equal to (or less than) that of water, the “head” required to drive the system at that velocity is approx. 27.5 psi (or 63.4 ft of water). For the observed flow, the pressure at the inlet orifice needs to be roughly 30 psi higher than the back pressure at the exit orifice, including a few psi for nominal losses at the orifices.
      The pressure in the oil at the bottom of the well, 30,000 down, can be no higher than 2,260 psi, or 30 psi higher than the pressure at the well head. Since the well head is at depth of 5,000 ft of sea water, it has a gage pressure of ~2,230 psi (using 64.2 lbs/cuft of sea water).
      That is based on the physics of observed flow in the pipe. No scientist is going to suddenly disclaim the long proven Hazens-Williams pipe formula.
      20,000 psi at the bottom of the well is ludicrous. 70,000 psi is beyond totally laughable.
      If the pressure at the well point was 20,000 psi as alleged, the pipe system would have to lose 17,770 psi (20,000 – 2,230) in friction losses from the flow. Per the equation, the flow rate would be 117,000 gpm, or ~4.0 M bbls per day, or 4 Exxon Vandeezes per day. Thru a 21″ pipe. The exit velocity would be 108.4 fps, or roughly 75 mph.
      20,000 psi is LAUGHABLE! 70,000 psi is beyond totally laughable.
      This reputedly educated scientist then assumes that once the oil has exuded out from of its underground cave, the cave spontaneously becomes an empty vaccuum, whereupon water rushes in and gets heated into steam, by the surrounding stones at 400º C. At the pressures of 5,000 ft depth, or 2,230 psi, water begins to boil at around 344ºC or 651ºF.
      Admittedly, it is possible, that at a depth 35,000 ft below sea level, the oil has a temperature of 400ºC. Since we observe that when the oil exits the well head, the water-to-oil interface does not show any conversion of water to steam? Thus we assume that the oil loses at least 56ºC during its 2.5 hr trip up the riser pipe. (The riser eventually equilibriates thermally with its environment, e.g. with surrounding soils at 400ºC, then at 350ºC, then …, etc.). Thus, the oil might be exiting the riser at something just under the 344ºC, which would be just under the temperature that it would need to boil at that pressure.
      And, it may be possible as the experts allege, that, as the last drops of oil leave the cavern at 35,000 feet of depth, under lifting forces of its own bouyancy, water from above will begin to flow into the cavern (to displace the oil as it leaves), and the cavern may well be at 400ºC.
      There is a small problem however. At that pressure, is no temperature will convert water to steam. It’s past the tripple point, or critical point, on the phase diagram for water. In essence, when water is under a pressure greater than 3,226 psi (occuring at a depth of 7,235 ft), it is always either a liquid or a solid. No matter what the temperature, at that pressure, there is no gas phase for the water. So, it is again physically impossible that water at that depth be heated to a gas inside the cave, that could cause the cave to explode, thereby causing a tsunami.
      disinformation abounds … arghhh!

  4. No, you’re correct. Halliburton, Dick Cheney and a bunch of Jewish bankers from Wall Street having a covert Blackwater sabotage team blow the rig to embarrass the current administration makes a better left/liberal conspiracy theory, though (why let facts and, likely, human error intrude?). As it is, the current administration is doing a pretty good job of emarassing itself anyway so I don’t think left/libtards need to embellish things, but if they insist…
    Nope, no legs. It is (or was) a floating drill rig. Hit a gas bubble, had a blowout. Protective measures failed. What can we say?

    • Oh, remember, they have to do this while screaming “It’s all Bush’s fault!” too. It’s sorta like doing vetriliquism while drinking a glass of water– obligatory showmanship to show how tough it is to make believable.

  5. thanks Steve … I should have put metaphorical “legs” in quotes to connote underwater support structure … dynamic positioning (GPS) would be the only way positioning could work … even flexible anchor rodes (1″ cable 10-15,000 ft long?) would have too much stretch and if triangulated they would all oscillate at different frequencies, tearing the rig apart, or themselves free from their cleats.
    the question I am asking is, how did a bunch of surface fires, and unconfined methane gas explosions (or were they confined — hehe?), on the upper decks of the rig, take out, melt down, whatever the underwater substructure of the rig? There was some pretty serious superstructure on that rig, which in turn had to have had some pretty serious “legs” underneath it. Just to handle the forces involved in drilling (if only to carry the weight of 20,000-plus feet of riser pipe and 30,000 feet of smaller drilling pipes (after drilling the riser gets set in place by injecting concrete instead of clay slurry in the annulus between the bore and the riser).
    a few deck fires and unconfined or open-pipe methane explosions are not enough to make a rig like that sink to the bottom as fast as that one went down … once again the theory pushed by the MSM is not adding up …

  6. yea … the thermite is a reach for me, as to my direct personal knowledge that is, but what I do know that there were 16 core columns in each tower that for some reason no one, not even the architects, will talk about. (both sides of every key controversy are ALWAYS controlled!)
    The steel in those 16 columns was so thick, it took 2 days of pre-heating to get the welds to take. on the structural plans, the columns were constant cross section (given above) from the subbasement up to 66 and 2/3 stories (=66.66 =arghh). ENR magazine (Engineering News Record) 1970s had a feature article on the construction of the towers, and a German magazine did a special on the welding problems, giving dimensions of the columns.
    Their disappearance is a huge problem for BOTH main stream media and the so-called “alternate” media … “solutions.”
    The tower floors were 4″ poured concrete with std. wrinkled tin flooring to hold the pours. They were supported by open rebar floor trusses. Totally standard construction. When the 4″ floors pancaked STRAIGHT downward, on the upright core columns, each 16″ THICK steel, it would be like a taking a horizontal sheet of paper and slamming it down on a screwdriver held vertically. The paper doesn’t cause the screwdriver to fold up .. it remains standing as the 110 sheets of 4″ thick concrete DUST fall on them. The analogy is like an old fashioned note canceller, where you poke a hole in a note to cancel it. Yhe truss ties, that held the floor trusses to joists between the core columns were little 1/2″ bolts — the sixteen core columns, each 16″ thick total (5″+6″+5″), they would just shear.
    I can understand the high tension perimeter columns ending up in a pile at the bottom, but there there should be 16 huge columns standing upright, like gravestones, in the midst of the rubble … where did they go to? what brought them down? pulverized concrete dust from smashed flooring did not do it, nor did any 1/2″ link bolts.
    Thermite might be a possible answer … Allied bombadeers who bombed Germany in WW-II recall that they would drop thermite bombs to melt the steel factories (literally), and they would then fly a second mission over that same route a week or so later, and they could still look down through their bomb sights and see blobs of molten steel glowing like dim light bulbs in the dark of night.
    thermite is pretty cool stuff.


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