Category Archives: Science & technology

Bill Nye becomes science warrior in Netflix series

bill nye

It’s Hollyweird…a faux scientist can become a real one in the land of make believe.

From CNN: Can Bill Nye really save the world? Probably not by preaching to the choir, which doesn’t make his half-hour Netflix show “Bill Nye Saves the World” any less noteworthy as a breezy blow struck on behalf of science, despite a few structural miscalculations.

The title alone speaks volumes: Premiering more than 20 years after “Bill Nye the Science Guy” started on PBS, the new series is pitched primarily toward adults, casting the bow-tie-wearing Nye as an advocate and science warrior, trying to beat back the anti-scientific thought and quackery that’s prevalent, especially within the political sphere.

Nye turns his attention to a different topic in each installment. They include the need to vaccinate children, the reality of climate change (inevitably) and applying a “Quack-O-Meter” to alternative medicines.

The episodes feature the host engaging in low-key, roundtable discussions with experts, and also taped pieces — dispatching a correspondent to India, for example, to document the success vaccination has registered there in preventing polio. Nye’s explanations are clear, simple and often funny, capitalizing on a sort-of nerd-chic personality that’s well suited to the program’s micro-budget, including perhaps the world’s tiniest studio audience.

The producers, however, apparently felt pressure to up the ante on entertainment value, and rather unfortunately chose to add what amount to little comedy sketches to illustrate their points. Those segments range from celebrity cameos (Zach Braff drops by to rail about the climate) to having different actors portray various diseases, modeling T-shirts with names like “POLIO” and “INFLUENZA.”

These vignettes are harmlessly goofy but also wholly unnecessary, feeling like a form of pandering in a series that seeks to arm its audience with greater scientific knowledge.

Like astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson, Nye has a lot to offer at this moment in time, when there’s such a strong, politically motivated culture of science denial. His eagerness to deliver straight talk on these matters — from asking whether vaccinations should be mandatory to lambasting the U.S. for failing to lead on climate change — will surely feel like a tonic to those share his concerns.

While “Bill Nye Saves the World” is a relatively modest enterprise by Netflix’s standards, it is, overall, an admirable addition to its lineup. If it’s not quite a rescue mission, Nye appears to have taken to heart the concept of trying to provide a small beacon of light rather than just cursing the darkness.

DCG

Not a conspiracy theory: U.S. government has engaged in weather modification since 1953

A recent article in New York Times Magazine of April 18, 2017, asks if it’s O.K. “to tinker with the environment to fight climate change”.

Tinkering with the environment is another way of saying “weather modification“.

The NYT article by Jon Gertner describes Harvard professor David Keith’s proposal of a continuous “solar engineering” project to slow down global warming, at a cost of $1 billion a year, by flying ten Gulfstream jets around the world, spraying 25,000 tons of liquid sulphur gas. The gas will condense into airborne particles that scatter sunlight and so reduce global warming. Keith argues such a project is technologically feasible, but is concerned, as he puts it, about “the ethics about messing with nature.”

Chemtrails over Barcelona, Spain

What neither Keith nor reporter Gertner seems to know (or pretend they don’t know) is that the U.S. government has been engaged in “tinkering with the environment” or weather modification since 1953, as revealed in a recently uncovered 784-page U.S. Senate report, Weather Modification: Programs, Problems, Policy, and Potential (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington: May 1978).

Here are some highlights from that report:

(1) The U.S. government has been doing weather modification since 1953 (p. v of Weather Modification):

In a letter addressed to Dr. Norman A. Beckman, Acting Director, Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress, Sen. James B. Pearson wrote: “weather modification projects have been operational for nearly 25 years and have been shown to have significant potential for preventing, diverting, moderating, or ameliorating the adverse effects of such weather related disasters and hazards”. Pearson’s “greatest concern” is “regarding the lack of a coordinated Federal weather modification policy and a coordinated and comprehensive program for weather modification research and development.” It is that concern that prompted Sen. Pearson to ask the Congressional Research Service to prepare the Weather Modification: Programs, Problems, Policy, and Potential report.

Note: James Pearson was a U.S. senator (R-Kansas) from 1962 to 1978. He introduced and sponsored senate bill S.3383 “National Weather Modification Policy Act”. Written into Public Law 94-490 on October 13, 1976, S.3383 authorized a member of the cabinet to “negotiate an International agreement concerning the peaceful uses of weather modification”.

(2) Definition of weather modification (from “Summary and Conclusions,” p. xix):

“Weather modification is generally considered to be the deliberate effort to improve atmospheric conditions for beneficial human purposes—to augment water supplies through enhanced precipitation or to reduce economic losses, property damages, and deaths through mitigation of adverse effects of hail, lightning, fog, and severe storms.”

(3) Modern, scientific methods of weather modification (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp. xix-xx):

  • The modern period in weather modification began in 1946 with cloud seeding using dry ice, then silver iodide.
  • Beginning in the 1950s, there were projects to alter severe storm effects. Commercial weather modifiers also began.
  • By 1978 when the Senate report was published, weather modification included cold fog clearing; “primitive” efforts to abate severe storms and hurricanes; increase winter snowpack by seeding clouds in the mountains on the U.S. west coast and in Israel to enhance precipitation by as much as 15% over “natural” rainfall; opening holes (via seeding) in wintertime cloud layers in northeast U.S. so as to increase sunshine and decrease energy consumption; and experiments to suppress lightning by seeding thunderstorms.

(4) U.S. government involvement in weather modification (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp. xxi-xxvi):

  • “For over 30 years both legislative and executive branches of the Federal Government have been involved in a number of aspects of weather modification.”
  • Since 1947, more than 110 weather modification bills and resolutions have been introduced in Congress — for research support, operations, grants, policy studies, regulations, liabilities, activity reporting, international concerns, and using weather modification as a weapon. Some of the bills became laws.
  • Total funding for Federal weather modification research reached a high point of $20 million in fiscal year 1976, falling to $17 million in fiscal year 1978.
  • While each federal government agency conducts its own weather modification research, the National Science Foundation is the lead agency. The NSF and the Departments of Interior and Commerce account for the largest weather modification programs.
  • State governments, universities, private institutions and commercial entities (e.g., airlines) also conduct their own weather modification projects, mostly to increase precipitation, suppression of hail or dispersal of fog.

(5) Global warming from human behaviors that may inadvertently cause weather modification (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp. xxi):

“Modification processes may also be initiated or triggered inadvertently rather than purposefully, and the possibility exists that society may be changing the climate through its own actions by pushing on certain leverage points. Inadvertently, man is already causing measurable variations on the local scale. Artificial climatic effects have been observed and documented on local and regional scales, particularly in and downwind of heavily populated industrial areas where waste heat, particulate pollution and altered ground surface characteristics are primarily responsible for the perceived climate modification. The climate in and near large cities, for example, is warmer, the daily range of temperature is less, and annual precipitation is greater than if the cities had never been built. Although not verifiable at present, the time may not be far off when human activities will result in measurable large-scale changes in weather and climate of more than passing significance. It is important to appreciate the fact that the role of man at this global level is still controversial, and existing models of the general circulation are not yet capable of testing the effects in a conclusive manner. Nevertheless, a growing fraction of current evidence does point to the possibility of unprecedented impact on the global climate by human activities ….”

(6) Weather modification is international (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp. xxvii):

  • While the U.S. is the leader in weather modification research and operations, other countries conduct weather modification as well, but not all governments report that they do.
  • The largest country outside of U.S. was the Soviet Union.
  • Other major weather modification countries are Canada, Israel, Mexico, China.

(7) Weather modification is controversial and has opposition (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp. xxvii):

“Weather modification is often controversial, and both formal and informal opposition groups have been organized in various sections of the country. Reasons for such opposition are varied and are based on both real and perceived adverse consequences from weather modification. Sometimes with little or no rational basis there are charges by these groups that otherwise unexplained and usually unpleasant weather-related events are linked to cloud seeding. There are also cases where some farmers are economically disadvantaged through receiving more, or less than optimum rainfall for their particular crops, when artificial inducement of such conditions may have indeed been planned to benefit those growing different crops with different moisture requirements.

(8) Weather modification as a weapon of war (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp. xix, xxviii):

  • “Not all weather modification activities, however, have been or can be designed to benefit everyone, and some intentional operations have been used, or are perceived to have been used, as a weapon of war to impede the mobility or tactical readiness of an enemy.”
  • The U.S. used weather modification as a weapon of war in Vietnam: “attempts were made to impede traffic by increasing rainfall during the monsoon season.”
  • Expect weather warfare between nations in the future.
  • There have been international efforts to ensure peaceful use of weather modification.
  • “Because atmospheric processes operate independent of national borders, weather modification is inherently of international concern…. Whereas domestic weather modification law is confused
    and unsettled, international law in this area is barely in the formative stage. In time, ramifications of weather modification may lead to major international controversy.

(9) Weather modification will have unintended ecological effects (from “Summary and Conclusions,” pp.xxix-xxx):

“Economically significant weather modification activities will have an eventual ecological effect, though appearance of that effect may be hidden or delayed…. Deliberate weather modification, such as precipitation augmentation, is likely to have a greater ecological impact in semi-arid regions than in humid ones.”

Dane Wigington of geoengineeringwatch.org asks:

How big does the climate engineering elephant in the room need to be before it can no longer be hidden in plain site? How much more historical proof do we need of the ongoing climate engineering/weather warfare before the denial of the masses crumbles? When will populations around the globe bring to justice all those responsible for the ongoing and rapidly worsening worldwide weather warfare assault?

And so, the next time you’re mocked and called a “conspiracy theorist” because you bring up chemtrails or HAARP or California’s peculiar historic 100-year drought, show them this post. They are the ones in denial, not us.

See also:

~Eowyn

America has more psychopaths than Europe

Psychopathy is a subcategory or extension of antisocial personality disorder. The hallmark attributes of a psychopath include a lack of empathy for others, selfishness, lack of guilt, and a superficial charm that’s deployed to manipulate others. It should be noted that those attributes, except maybe lack of guilt, also characterize pathological narcissists or the Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

Psychopaths and sociopaths aren’t the same, although both have a poor sense of “right and wrong” and a lack of empathy. The main differences are:

  1. Psychopaths don’t have a conscience. Dr. L. Michael Tompkins, a psychologist at the Sacramento County Mental Health Treatment Center, told WebMD that whereas psychopaths will steal from you without feeling a twinge of guilt, though they may pretend to if they’re caught, sociopaths, on the other hand, know that stealing your money is wrong and may feel remorse, but the remorse won’t be enough to stop their deviant behavior.
  2. Psychopaths are adept at blending in. They can come off as charming, intelligent, and may even mimic emotions they really don’t feel. Tompkins said psychopaths are “skilled actors whose sole mission is to manipulate people for personal gain,” whereas sociopaths are more likely to come off as “hot-headed” and may act more impulsively.

All of which make psychopaths more deceptive and more dangerous than sociopaths.

Not all psychopaths are violent serial killers. The most important characteristics of a psychopath revolve not around violence, but around lack of empathy, selfishness, and manipulation. While some psychopaths may use these traits to commit crimes, others rely on their manipulative skills and ability to charm for non-violent, but no less exploitative and destructive, pursuits. Many psychopaths actually find great success in the business world thanks to their ruthless nature — a disproportionate number of CEOs are psychopaths. Some other popular career paths for psychopaths include politics, law, media, and sales.

As many as 5% of people may have psychopathic tendencies.

Psychopathy is not easy to diagnose because there is no brain imaging or biological test that can inarguably identify a person as a psychopath. The most commonly used device for identifying psychopaths is the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), a 20-item inventory of personality traits and recorded behaviors developed by Dr. Robert D. Hare in the 1970s.

The checklist is administered in a semi-structured interview format, and operates on a point system based on whether a behavior (e.g., pathological lying) can be reasonably matched to the subject. The subject is assigned a score between 0 and 40, with 40 being maximum psychopathy and 0 the minimum. The cutoff for being labeled as a psychopath is 30 in the United States and 25 in the UK.

There are cross-cultural differences in the rate of psychopathy.

In his chapter, “Psychopathy Across Cultures,” for the edited volume Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society (Springer, 1997), psychologist David J. Cooke of Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK, employed Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) in a cross-cultural study of variation in the presentation and prevalence of psychopathy. (H/t Thought Crime Radio)

Alarmingly, Dr. Cooke found that the prevalence of psychopaths, as measured by average PCL-R scores, is greater in North America (i.e., the U.S. and Canada) than 16 European samples (from 10 countries), as shown in Table 1 below (page 16 of Psychopathy):

Note: Mean is arithmetic average, computed by dividing the sum total of PCL-R scores of a group by the number of individuals in the group.

As you can see in Table 1 above, whereas the mean PCL-R score of the 16 European samples was 16.2, the mean 22.8 PCL-R score of North Americans was more than 40% higher, which Dr. Cooke calls “substantially” higher.

Also noteworthy is the fact that there is little difference in the prevalence of psychopaths between the general population and prisoners of North America. The North American population mean PCL-R score of 22.8 is only 0.8 less than the 23.6 average PCL-R score for North American prisoners.

Note: Psychopaths are over-represented in prisons. While not all psychopaths are violent, many violent people are psychopaths. Researchers say there is an abnormally high number of psychopaths in prison. Some studies suggest 50% to 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder, and 15% of prisoners can be expected to be psychopathic, compared to the 1 to 5% expected in the general population. There isn’t much available research on serial killers and mass murderers, but it would be a reasonable assumption that psychopaths are quite over-represented in those populations as well. That’s because a psychopath’s personality makes it easy to act on violent urges or ideas that empathy, guilt, or fear would stomp out in a normal person.

Below is a self-administered psychopathy test, using 20 traits of Dr. Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). For each attribute, give yourself a score of 0 to 2, where 0 = “not at all descriptive of me”; 1 = “somewhat descriptive”; and 2 = “describes me perfectly”.

  1. glib and superficial charm
  2. grandiose (exaggeratedly high) estimation of self
  3. need for stimulation
  4. pathological lying
  5. cunning and manipulativeness
  6. lack of remorse or guilt
  7. shallow affect (superficial emotional responsiveness)
  8. callousness and lack of empathy
  9. parasitic lifestyle
  10. poor behavioral controls
  11. sexual promiscuity
  12. early behavior problems
  13. lack of realistic long-term goals
  14. impulsivity
  15. irresponsibility
  16. failure to accept responsibility for own actions
  17. many short-term marital relationships
  18. juvenile delinquency
  19. revocation of conditional release
  20. criminal versatility

When properly completed by a qualified professional, the PCL-R provides a total score that indicates how closely the test subject matches the “perfect” score that a classic or prototypical psychopath would rate. A prototypical psychopath would receive a maximum score of 40, while someone with absolutely no psychopathic traits or tendencies would receive a score of zero. A score of 30 or above qualifies a person for a diagnosis of psychopathy. People with no criminal backgrounds normally score around 5. Many non-psychopathic criminal offenders score around 22.

When I first posted this check-list in November 2015, I had included a poll (see below), which showed that, happily and as we would expect, the majority of FOTM readers who took the self-administered test got a low score.

See also:

~Eowyn

Facebook Gives Staff Green Light to Join May 1 Political Protests

From Bloomberg: Facebook Inc. said it won’t punish employees who take time off to join pro-immigrant protests on May 1. And, in a nod to security staff, janitors, shuttle-bus drivers and others who work for Facebook contractors on campus, the company also said it will investigate if any of its vendors illegally crack down on their employees’ protest rights.

“At Facebook, we’re committed to fostering an inclusive workplace where employees feel comfortable expressing their opinions and speaking up,” a spokesman wrote in an emailed statement. “We support our people in recognizing International Workers’ Day and other efforts to raise awareness for safe and equitable employment conditions.”

Facebook notified employees of its policy in a posting on an internal forum April 14. A spokesman said it applies regardless of whether workers notify the company ahead of time. The Menlo Park, California, company also said it would re-evaluate its ties to any vendor if it breaks the law that protects workers’ rights to organize and protect themselves.

“It’s important not just to the engineers and H-1B holders that are traditionally thought of as the immigrants in tech but also to folks who are subcontracted but work side-by-side on those campuses,” said Derecka Mehrens, co-founder of Silicon Valley Rising, a union-backed coalition. “Immigrants play a critical role in the tech sector — both as engineers and coders but also in keeping tech campuses running smoothly.”

Many tech companies have been vocal in their opposition to aspects of Trump’s agenda. Facebook has criticized Trump’s immigration moves. At a rally in January at Google’s headquarters in Mountain View, California, CEO Sundar Pichai and co-founder Sergey Brin spoke against Trump’s executive order that closed U.S. borders to people from several majority-Muslim nations. Both companies, along with Apple Inc., Microsoft Corp. and Intel Corp., are among more than 120 firms that signed a February court filing opposing the travel ban.

Read the rest of the story here.

DCG

Cost triples, delays mount for University of California computer system upgrade

20070227_napolitano_3

UC president Janet Napolitano

Shocker, not.

From Sacramento Bee: The timeline for a massive upgrade to the University of California’s payroll and personnel system was extended again twice in the past two months, further delaying a project now expected to cost more than three times its original budget.

In February, the university pushed back its launch date at a first wave of sites to December from August; two subsequent phases of the rollout were then moved the following month, to July 2018 and December 2018, respectively.

That would ultimately put the payroll system, UCPath, more than four years behind schedule – longer that it was originally supposed to take.

In a statement, UC spokesman Ricardo Vazquez said the university postponed the initial launch again because “Additional testing was needed in the most complex part of the work, which involves converting data from the old payroll systems into UCPath.”

“Though the conversion cycle itself typically lasts only five weeks, the time needed for this extra test cycle pushed the project close to the university’s annual Open Enrollment cycle” for health insurance, he said, “which would have added complexity and risk to this deployment effort.”

UCPath – which stands for payroll, academic personnel, timekeeping and human resources – was formally launched in September 2011, with a 36-month timeline to combine UC’s 195,000 employees into a single system. Budgeted at $156 million, university officials argued it was a necessary upgrade to outdated, 30-year-old payroll technology and would eventually save them more than $100 million per year.

But deadline after deadline has come and gone as UC struggled to integrate the business processes of its 10 campuses, five medical centers and central administration. Though 1,800 employees in the Office of the President have been receiving paychecks through the system since January 2016, UCPath has yet to go live at any of the other sites.

With the latest revision to its schedule, Vazquez said, the project is estimated to cost $504 million, including a $26 million contingency “to accommodate any unexpected large expenses in the final year of the project budget” that may not be used. The university has spent $327 million so far.

“Now that design has been completed and UCPath is into the testing phase, the university’s ability to accurately project the total cost has improved,” Vazquez said, citing additional staff as the primary contributor to the increase.

Michael Krigsman, an IT industry analyst at CXOTalk.com, said it’s better for UC to delay the payroll system than be stuck unable to issue paychecks for months. But he questioned how the university had gotten so far off track and what it would do in the future to avoid repeating those mistakes.

“A project that is three times its original size either rests on very shaky foundation or they changed the plan along the way, which indicates a poor understanding of the problem it was trying to solve,” he said. “That’s a pretty lame excuse.”

DCG

New evidence dates Shroud of Turin to time of Christ

The Shroud of Turin is a rectangular 14 ft 5 in × 3 ft 7 in piece of woven flax cloth, believed by Christians to be the burial cloth of Jesus. The cloth bears the faint, brownish 3D imprint of the front and back view of the face and body of a bearded naked man — muscular and tall (various experts have measured him as from 5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 2 in). The imprint shows reddish-brown stains from wounds at the man’s wrist and pinpricks around his brow which are consistent with Christ’s wounds from being nailed to the cross and from the “crown of thorns” mockingly pressed onto his scalp.

To this day, scientists cannot account for how the image had been impressed on the cloth. They have dismissed the image being a painted or photographed image. A reigning hypothesis is that the image is the result of an intense blast of ultraviolet radiation.

Even those who don’t follow every development concerning the Shroud probably know that in 1988, carbon-14 dating tests performed on scraps taken from a corner of the Shroud dated it to the Middle Ages, between the years 1260 and 1390.

What is less known is a probable explanation for the dating — that in 1532, the Shroud had been damaged in a fire in the chapel where it was stored; Poor Clare nuns repaired the damage with patches; and the carbon-14 dating was performed precisely on a repaired patch, thereby skewing the test result.

Two discoveries in recent years lend support to that explanation, as well as to the authenticity of the Shroud as the burial cloth of our Lord Jesus Christ.

(1) Pollen

Doug Stanglin reports for USA Today, March 30, 2013, that a new test by scientists at the University of Padua in northern Italy, using the same fibers from the 1988 tests, dates the Shroud to between 300 BC and 400 AD, which would put it in the era of Christ.

The latest findings are contained in a new Italian-language book, Il Mistero Della Sindone (The Mystery of the Shroud), by Giulio Fanti, a professor of mechanical and thermal measurement at Padua University, and journalist Saverio Gaeta.

The new test:

  1. Determined that the 1988 carbon-14 results may have been skewed by contamination from fibers used to repair the cloth when it was damaged by fire in the Middle Ages.
  2. Supports earlier findings of traces of dust and pollen on the Shroud which could only have come from the Holy Land in the time of Christ.

Marco Tosatti reports for Vatican Insider that the pollen that covers the Shroud corresponds to that of flowers used for funerals in Asia Minor 2000 years ago.

Marzia Boi, a university researcher at the University of the Balearic Islands and an expert in Palynology, the science that studies pollen, wrote:

“The pollen traces on the Holy Shroud which have so far been linked to the geographic origin of the  relic reveal what oils and ointments were put both on the body and on the sheet. These discoveries have an ethno-cultural meaning linked to ancient funeral practices. These non-perishable particles capture the image of a 2000-year-old funeral rite and thanks to them it was possible to discover what plants were used in the preparation of the body that was kept in the sheet. The oils allowed the pollens, as fortuitous ingredients, to be absorbed and hidden in the shroud’s fabric like invisible evidence of an extraordinary historical event.”

Using a electron microscope, Boi identified the pollen on the Shroud as “from a plant called Helichrysum which is part of the Asteraceae family” (29.1%), Cistaceae pollen (8.2%), Apiaceae pollen (4.2%), and trace amounts of Pistacia pollen (0.6%). She writes:

The list of pollens reveals traces of the most common plants used in ancient funerals . . . that followed the customs of Asia Minor, 2000 years ago. They are the components of the most precious oils and ointments of the time and have extraordinarily remained sealed in the [Shroud’s] fabric… The correct identification of the Helichrysum’s pollen, wrongly believed to be that of the Gundelia flower, confirms and guarantees that the body wrapped up in the sheet was an important figure.

(2) A Second Face


Second face on backside of Shroud of Turin

Jerome R. Corsi reports for WND, April 27, 2010, that scientists examining the Shroud of Turin since the restoration that began in 2000 have found a “second face” on its reverse “hidden side,” a discovery they believe adds evidence to the argument it is not a medieval painting or photographic rendering.

The second face image, also 3D, on the back of the shroud had been hidden for centuries, until the 2002 restoration when the Holland cloth – the backing cloth placed on the shroud by the Poor Clare Nuns to preserve it after the 1532 fire – was removed, permitting for the first time in centuries an examination of the back side.

In 2004, Professors Giulio Fanti and Roberto Maggiolo of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Padua in Italy published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Optics their study, “The Double Superficiality of the Frontal Image of the Turin Shroud.” They concluded there exists a second, even fainter face image on the backside of the Shroud of Turin, corresponding but not identical to the now-familiar face image of the crucified man seen in head-to-head dorsal and ventral views on the front side.

To the naked eye, the backside of the shroud appears to show no image whatsoever. But Fanti and Maggiolo used image-processing techniques, including Gaussian filters and Fourier transformations to highlight the extremely faint second face on the backside of the shroud, including details of a nose, eyes, hair, beard and mustache.

Like the face image on the front side of the shroud, the previously hidden image on the backside is a superficial image that exists only on the topmost linen fibers, created by the same dehydration process characteristic of the face and body image on the front.

The researchers concluded that the image of the face on the backside of the shroud had neither been created by a photographic process nor by painting in which the facial image on the front “bled through” to create an image on the reverse side, because the front and back facial images are not identical and the center fibers show no image creation whatsoever.

Fanti and Maggiolo concluded the shroud image was created by a “corona discharge” — a radiant burst of light and energy that scorched the body image of the crucified man on the topmost fibers of the shroud’s front and back sides, without producing any image on the center fibers.

Daniel Porter, editor of ShroudStory.com, points out that images on the Shroud of Turin, at their thickest, are as thin as “slicing a human hair lengthwise, from end to end, into 100 long thin slices; each slice one-tenth the width of a single red blood cell.

Here’s a video showing how the Man in the Shroud, with scratches and wounds cleaned and removed, might have appeared.

~Eowyn