Long-winded speech may be an early sign of Alzheimer’s

Approximately 7.7 million new cases of dementia are identified every year—which amounts to one new case every four seconds. Last year, dementia overtook heart disease as the leading cause of death in England and Wales. There are 850,000 people with dementia in Britain and this figure is expected to reach 1 million by 2025.

The dreaded Alzheimer’s disease is a severe form of dementia which affects as many as 1 in 8 people 65 and older, or an estimated 5.2 million Americans in 2013.

Alzheimer’s causes nerve cell death and tissue loss throughout the brain. As the disease gets worse, brain tissue shrinks and areas that contain cerebrospinal fluid become larger. The damage harms memory, speech, and comprehension.

On left is a diagram of the brain of a person with Alzheimer’s Disease

Hannah Devlin reports for The Guardian, Feb. 21, 2017, on the disappointing news that drugs designed to treat Alzheimer’s have shown to be ineffective. Between 2002 and 2012, 99.6% of drugs studies aimed at preventing, curing or improving Alzheimer’s symptoms were either halted or discontinued.

Some believe that these failures may be, in part, because by the time Alzheimer’s is diagnosed, the disease has already caused irreparable damage to the brain, making it too late for treatment to help. That is why scientists now try to push the detection period back to the very subtle, early changes in Alzheimer’s disease.

Speaking at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) on February 19, 2017 in Boston, Dr. Janet Cohen Sherman, clinical director of the Psychology Assessment Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, said: “With the growth in the aging population and the concomitant rise in the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease, the need to define changes in cognitive functioning at the earliest stages, prior to disease onset, when treatments are likely to be most effective, has become increasingly important.”

Dementia is accompanied by not just memory loss, but characteristic language deficits. New research suggests that an early sign of Alzheimer’s may be rambling and long-winded anecdotes — subtle changes in speech style from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a known precursor of Alzheimer’s in which there is evidence of cognitive decline years before dementia takes hold. The scientists behind the work say it may be possible to detect these speech changes and predict if someone is at risk more than a decade before meeting the clinical threshold for an Alzheimer’s diagnosis.

At the AAAS meeting, Dr. Sherman presented new findings on distinctive language deficits in people with MCI, a precursor to dementia:

  • Studies of novelist Iris Murdoch’s later works found that her vocabulary showed signs of Alzheimer’s years before her diagnosis.
  • The final novels of famous crime writer Agatha Christie display increasingly repetitive and vague phrasing that suggests she was suffering from Alzheimer’s.
  • A study of White House press conference transcripts found striking changes in President Ronald Reagan’s speech over the course of his presidency, whereas George H.W. Bush, who was a similar age when president, showed no such decline. Dr. Sherman said, “Ronald Reagan started to have a decline in the number of unique words with repetitions of statements over time. He started using more fillers, more empty phrases, like ‘thing’ or ‘something’ or things like ‘basically’ or ‘actually’ or ‘well’.”
  • Sherman points out that the key is not long-winded, because many people without dementia are long-winded or verbose. The subtle change in speech style that indicates mild cognitive impairment is worsening mental imprecision.

So what’s an example of the kind of long-winded speech that is indicative of early Alzheimer’s?

In a study, the scientists compared the language abilities of 22 healthy young individuals, 24 healthy older individuals, and 22 people with MCI — the precursor to Alzheimer’s.

In one test, the subjects had to join up three words, for instance “pen”, “ink” and “paper”, the healthy volunteers typically joined the three in a simple sentence, while the MCI group gave circuitous accounts of going to the shop and buying a pen. Dr. Sherman explains that they MCI group “were much less concise in conveying information, the sentences they produced were much longer, they had a hard time staying on point and I guess you could say they were much more roundabout in getting their point across. It was a very significant difference.”

In another test, people were asked to repeat phrases read out by the investigator. Complex vocabulary or grammar was not a problem, but those with MCI appeared to have a mental block when they were given phrases involving ambiguous pronouns, such as “Fred visited Bob after his graduation”, which the scientists said required more mental agility to assign a meaning.

As Dr. Sherman summarizes the research findings:

“Our findings suggest that individuals with MCI may have more difficulty integrating syntax and semantics, impacting their ability to precisely and effectively convey meaning. Our findings suggest that the language changes cannot be accounted for by a decline in memory.”

Dr. Sherman hopes that in the next five years, researchers will develop a linguistic test for pre-Alzheimer’s mild cognitive impairment, as well as a determination whether engaging in language-based activities, including reading, writing and social activities, may serve as protective factors for dementia.

See also:

~Eowyn

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8 responses to “Long-winded speech may be an early sign of Alzheimer’s

  1. I wonder how many people that have this disease also had regular flu and/or pneumonia vaccines.

    Liked by 2 people

    • Excellent point since there sure studies that show those who have had more than three flu shots to be 25 times more likely to get Alzheimer’s.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. Nice article. My Grandmother, whose family came here from the U.K., died after a long battle with Alzheimer’s. Mom was fearing she’d follow the same sentence, but having now reached the ripe old age of 80 (and looking like maybe 60 at most), we’re all fairly sure it passed over her. As for me and my siblings, we try keeping mentally active, the same way mom has always done and impressed upon us since we were very young. I study German, Spanish, and Latin before bed each night (French last year, switched for Latin now, as apparently French and I are incompatible). And I study HTML5 coding, PC systems & networks, Law, and Chemistry on alternate nights. Just simple stuff, really, with a free app called Memrise on an Android tablet. Just enough to keep my two remaining brain cells working… I think language and brain stimulation are key, but I think a bit of math is also good (I like statistics).

    Liked by 2 people

  3. What are we being asked to believe here? The irreproducibility of scientific studies, even in the hard sciences, has become a scandal, and in fields like psychology significantly more than half the studies in peer-reviewed publications have been irreproducible; i.e., based on made up findings advancing a career or specialist’s agenda.

    Dr Sherman’s study with a sample of 68 people verges on the anecdotal, is for the most part trivially true, and in her finding that “complex grammar or syntax was not a problem,” it verges on being self-contradictory. And yet this woman was invited to address the AAAS on this study. Moreover, based on that study, there’s every reason to suspect she was awarded the typical doctorate in psychology based on drawing commonsense conclusions from simplistic variables in a questionnaire of leading questions.

    Alzheimer’s is for real, of course, but so is making money off it and expanding the power of these mental health professional based on anything they can dress up as science.

    We don’t need psychologists getting paid six-figure incomes to tell us the obvious. The real howler in that study is the claim that pausing over ambiguous pronouns, as in “Fred visited Bob after his graduation,” is a sign of senility when the opposite is true–it’s a sign of a logical mind–, while slurring over the two possible meanings is said to be a sign of a younger, healthier mind.

    Like

  4. This is a subject close to my heart since we have had over 6 family members that have passed from Alzheimer’s. We have some dealing with it now, including my mother recently diagnosed.
    I do think a lot of our environment as well as injections help exacerbate the problem.
    Many things make us store aluminum in our brains.
    Fake sugars also are very deadly. Splenda says it is made from sugar, but the way it is processed with chlorine is what makes it dangerous. It also can affect our brains.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Sorry about your mom, Glenn47. 😦

      Since so many of your family members had Alzheimer’s, have you noticed that their speech patterns changed (to being long-winded, rambling, imprecise, with filler words) before they were clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer’s?

      Like

  5. traildustfotm

    😦

    Like

  6. I just read that both the flu vaccine and eating artificial sugars like splenda etc will cause Alzheimer and other dementia. Thanxs for this article.

    Like

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