Category Archives: Pro-Life

Euthanasia on the rise in America due to lucrative organ-harvesting

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legal euthanasia across worldCountries where euthanasia is or has been legal (Wikipedia)

From Life Issues, Sept. 26, 2014:

A silent and deadly epidemic is moving across America. No one is broadcasting it. No one is writing about it. Almost no one is even talking about it. But every day in hospitals, nursing homes and hospices across the country, more and more of our medically vulnerable loved ones are being euthanized.

Indeed, some physicians have admitted to this behavior. A 1998 article from the Journal of the American Medical Association reported that hastening death is occurring and is not rare. In a survey of 355 oncologists, “(15.8%) reported participating in euthanasia or physician assisted suicide,” and “38 of 53 (72%) oncologists described clearly defined cases of euthanasia or physician assisted suicide.”1

These decisions are being made by paid medical professionals. And loved ones, to their horror, are finding they’re not even part of the discussion. The patients’ crimes? They’re charged with having insufficient quality of life, being too expensive to keep alive, and being beyond the reach of medical science and therefore beyond hope.

Such judgments may lie behind what seems to be an increase in the “brain death” diagnosis. The difficulty of making a pinpoint diagnosis in such complex neurological matters—and the lucrative financial incentives to harvest organs—will ultimately propel this issue into the forefront of public consciousness and discourse.

Not surprisingly, the current procurement market for human tissues and organs in the United States is booming, driven by insufficient supply and heavy demand. According to The Milliman Report (see page 4), if all 11 tissues and organs could be harvested from a single patient declared brain-dead, however unlikely, the going rate for procurement would exceed half a million dollars. If all costs related to those 11 transplants are counted—preparation, physicians’ services, post-op care and the like—the money involved exceeds $5.5 million.2

It’s crucial to shed a bright light on this menacing darkness, but we need your help. Here are four ways you can assist:

First, we need to hear from healthcare workers and professionals. If you’ve witnessed this happening in your work environment, please come forward and share your observations with us. Perhaps you or someone you know has inside knowledge of the organ donation process as it relates to a situation of euthanasia.

Second, we need your personal stories. We’re also looking for family members willing to share healthcare experiences involving a loved one that are similar to what we’ve conveyed in this letter.

Please trust that if you request your identity be held in confidence, that confidentiality will not be violated.

Third, we need people willing to be interviewed on camera. We have a golden opportunity to educate more Americans to euthanasia in our midst. A special episode of the Emmy© award-winning pro-life television series Facing Life Head-On with Brad Mattes plans to feature real-life accounts of people sharing specifics of this American travesty. The program reaches tens of millions of American households, so imagine the number of people whose eyes could be opened. America will be told what is happening to the elderly, the chronically sick and the cognitively disabled. If necessary, we can keep the identity of our TV guests confidential.

Finally, we need your prayers. This is, first and foremost, a battle against powers and principalities. We cannot hope to win on our own. Only the power of prayer will permit us to expose this hideous and inhumane attack on precious human life.

If you prefer not to be on television, we still need you. Our ultimate goal is to build a network of people who can speak publicly about these issues to educate others regarding this horrific, unnoticed practice. This may entail speaking to pro-life groups or others sympathetic to protecting innocent human life; addressing a state legislative committee regarding pending legislation; or speaking to a hospital ethics committee as they struggle with a challenging situation or policy. Our goal is to develop a network of experienced experts who can speak directly to the issues at hand.

This is literally a life-and-death matter. And we who are blessed to have life and a voice must intervene to help those who are in danger of having life taken from them. We hope to hear from you soon.

See also:

~Eowyn

Doctor who performed 1,200 abortions: Late-term abortions ‘neither simple nor safe’

Dr. Levatino

Dr. Levatino

LifeSiteNews: Dr. Anthony Levatino, a former abortionist who now supports the right to life, is warning that late-term abortion is “neither simple nor safe.” He made the comments in response to news that the Whole Women’s Health abortion franchise is about to open an office in his hometown of Las Cruces, New Mexico, that will offer abortions up to the 18th week of pregnancy.

Baby at 18 weeks

Baby at 18 weeks

“The standard procedure for accomplishing an abortion at 18 weeks is a suction D&E [dilation and extraction],” he wrote. “In the early part of my career, I performed approximately 1,200 abortions up to 24 weeks gestation. I have considerable experience in this arena.”

Baby at 24 weeks

Baby at 24 weeks

“Once while performing a suction D&E at, coincidentally 18 weeks, I was unaware that I had perforated the uterus until I pulled my patient’s intestines out through her cervix and vagina,” he remembered. Other risks “include infection, hemorrhage, damage to the uterus (including perforation and laceration of major blood vessels), bladder, vagina, intestine and other structures.”

“It is well known that any abortion performed at or after 16-18 weeks carries the same degree of risk of death as childbirth,” he added. “Imagine delivering a child in a clinic.”

Due to the potential dangers it posed, Dr. Levatino said he only performed these procedures in a hospital setting. “It is my professional opinion that late-term abortion should never be performed outside of a hospital,” he said.

Yet the new abortion office, which was to open on September 15 but has not apparently begun operations, has made no arrangements with area health care providers in the event of a botched abortion, he said. “To date, three weeks after this abortion clinic was to open, no physician from Whole Women’s Health has applied for admitting privileges to either Las Cruces hospital.”

Whole Women’s Health – which promises on its website to give women a “fabulous abortion experience” – was cited last year by the State of Texas for using rusty suction machines at their Beaumont office, which the state deemed were likely to cause infection.

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) also fined Whole Women’s Health facilities in Austin and McAllen, Texas, more than $40,000 in 2011 for illegally disposing of aborted babies’ remains. They threw the bloody body parts into the trash, which Stericycle then transported to a normal municipal landfill. Complete medical records, bearing the name and address of the women who came in for abortions, were also thrown into the dumpster, officials said.

Dr. Levatino offered powerful testimony about what it is like to perform a late-term abortion before the House Judiciary Committee last May during a hearing on the Pain Capable Unborn Child Protection Act.

“The toughest part of a D&E abortion is extracting the baby’s head,” he said. “You know you have it right when you crush down on the clamp and see white gelatinous material coming through the cervix. That was the baby’s brains. You can then extract the skull pieces. Many times a little face may come out and stare back at you.

The abortion chain is opening the New Mexico office to attract women from west Texas who are without an abortion facility thanks to the Lone Star State’s new pro-life law.

Whole Women closed, then reopened, then again closed it offices in McAllen, Texas, rather than obtain admitting privileges and meet the new, stricter health and safety standards required of other ambulatory surgical centers.

Whole Woman’s Health of New Mexico not only opens up access to abortion care in southern New Mexico and Juárez, but it also gives access to women in El Paso and the swaths of west Texas,” the business wrote on its blog.

From the Whole Woman’s Health founder’s web page:

Amy Hagstrom Miller

Amy Hagstrom Miller

“Changing the World, One Woman at a Time”

“My name is Amy Hagstrom Miller and I founded Whole Woman’s Health in 2003 with the mission to provide fabulous abortion care; which to me means excellent medicine for your body and mind, compassionate, supportive care for your mind and spirit. Our Whole Woman’s Health clinics provide abortion and gynecological care services. We are in the identity examination, stigma reduction, self-esteem boosting business as well. We understand that no one gets pregnant to have an abortion. We also understand that facing an unplanned pregnancy and choosing abortion involves all the big things in women’s lives – examination of identity, life, death, sex, religion, family. We are advocates for women, plain and simple, and we serve women and families with the best care possible during a difficult time in their lives.”

Margaret Sanger would be proud.

DCG

U. of California offers first ever course on killing babies

APersonsAPerson

Jennifer Kabanny writes for The College Fix, Oct. 9, 2014:

The University of California – San Francisco will launch an online abortion course this Monday, an Internet class being hailed as the first of its kind.

The course will delve into “clinical aspects of medication abortion, aspiration abortion, post-abortion contraception, and pain management for abortion,” as well as topics such as the history of abortion, “abortion stigma,” complications and counseling, its outline states.

“I think that if we can inspire even a small portion of the people who take the course to take steps in their communities to increase access to safe abortion and decrease stigma about abortion, then we have been totally successful,” Dr. Jody Steinauer, associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences at the University of California – San Francisco, told The Daily Beast, which first reported on the class, noting an estimated 3,000 people have signed up so far.

The free, six-week class, titled “Abortion: Quality Care and Public Health Implications,” is offered through the university’s partnership with Coursera, an educational technology company that joins forces with universities to offer a wide variety of Massive Open Online Courses. While it is designed for “any clinician, physician, health care worker or student who will care for women of reproductive age,” it’s open to anyone.

“Each week’s lectures will incorporate the stories of women who seek abortion in order to better portray abortion significance and rationale,” its outline states. “Other topics will include a brief history of abortion, the clinical aspects of medication and procedural abortions in and after the first trimester, an overview of patient-centered abortion-care, the basics of abortion counseling, the professional obligations of health care practitioners to ensure that women have access to safe abortion care, and the maze of restrictions that make safe abortion care inaccessible to many women.”

The class has been hailed by left-leaning news outlets as revolutionary and vital because, they claim, access to abortion for women is very difficult, an allegation blamed largely on “a U.S. educational system that ignores the frequency of abortion, producing health care providers who have no formal training in abortion care,” as the Beast’s Samantha Allen put it.

Her report cited a 2005 review of U.S. medical school curricula that found “less than a third of schools include a single lecture focused on abortion during the clinical years.”

Prolife advocates see things differently.

In response to news of the course, Donna Harrison, executive director of the American Association of Pro-life Obstetricians and Gynecologiststold WORLD magazine that “obstetricians and gynecologists refuse to do abortions because they choose to adhere to the Hippocratic Oath, not because their education didn’t cover abortions.”

And National Right To Life’s Randall O’Bannon, its director of education and research, stated the reason most medical schools and med students shun learning how to perform abortions is because they “recognize that abortion is the killing of human beings.”

He also questioned the outcome of the course, saying it’s unclear whether students actually expect to be able to perform an abortion after taking the class.

“Chemical methods, some involving drugs available by mail ordered over the internet, others using drugs developed as anti-ulcer medications … can be used (quite dangerously) by the women themselves or by lightly trained medical personnel,” O’Bannon states.

Students who finish the course will earn a certificate, and “AMA PRA Category 1 CME Credits” are expected to be given to practicing physicians and other health professionals who complete the class, its outline states.

Abortion specialist Dr. Jody Steinauer

Abortion specialist Dr. Jody Steinauer

Dr. Jody Steinauer is an associate professor of ObGyn (pronounced by President Ebola as “oh bee guy nee”) and reproductive science at UCSF’s School of Medicine. Her list of publications reveals her interests and priorities to be almost entirely fixated on abortion killing of the unborn. They include:

  • “Vaginal Hysterectomy as a Viable Option for Female-to-Male Transgender Men,” in Obstet Gynecol. 2014 May; 123 Suppl 1:104S.
  • “Time to stand up for abortion providers,” JAMA. 1994 Nov 2; 272(17):1378.
  • “Legislating abortion care,” Virtual Mentor. 2014; 16(4):265-9.
  • Many journal articles on whether and how internists in medical schools are getting training in performing abortion, such as “Obstacles to the integration of abortion into obstetrics and gynecology practice,” Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2010 Sep; 42(3):146-51; and “How available is abortion training?,” Fam Plann Perspect. 2001 Mar-Apr; 33(2):88-9.
  • At least 6 journal articles on second-trimester abortions.

H/t FOTM reader Amy

~Eowyn

UNFAIR: Exposing the IRS

On October 14, 2014, for one night only, the documentary film, Unfair: Exposing the IRS, will screen in 674 theaters nationwide, courtesy of Fathom Events, a company that brings sports, concerts, speeches and other alternative entertainment to movie screens.

The movie is about abuse at the IRS, the agency responsible for collecting taxes in the U.S. Unfair is about the scandal revealed last year wherein Republican and some Democratic lawmakers accused Lois Lerner, at the time the director of the exempt organizations unit of the IRS, of delaying the applications of conservative groups seeking tax-free status from 2010-2013.

The scandal triggered several investigations, with the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration confirming that the IRS did, in fact, subject Tea Party groups and other conservative organizations to far more scrutiny than it did liberal groups. Lerner dismissed calls for her resignation and was eventually called to testify before a House Oversight Committee. She retired from the IRS late last year.

Scenes in Unfair include Lerner’s testimony, such as “I have not done anything wrong,” she tells congressional representatives, before adding: “I have decided to follow my counsel’s advice and not testify or answer any of the questions today.” Just after the scene is a clip of President Ebola advising, “The only people who don’t want to disclose the truth are people with something to hide.”

The movie was written and produced by radio host Craig Bergman and directed by Judd Saul. It was executive produced by John Sullivan, who co-directed Dinesh D’Souza’s two films, America this year and 2016: Obama’s America two years ago. The filmmakers are hoping to attract thousands of Tea Partiers to the one-night screening, which is followed by a recorded panel discussion with former GOP presidential candidates Alan Keyes and Mike Huckabee. The former is in the film, along with Glenn Beck, Sen. Ted Cruz and Rep. Michele Bachmann.

“Lois Lerner is the boogie man that the left put out as their scapegoat,” Bergman told The Hollywood Reporter. “This isn’t about rogue agents; this is a systemic problem that has been going on for 100 years, and I make the moral case against the system. Lois Lerner is just one bad guy on a long list of bad guys.”

But Lerner continues to portray herself as the victim.

On Monday, Oct. 6, independent journalist Jason Mattera, author of the just-released book Crapitalism: Liberals Who Make Millions Swiping Your Tax Dollars, released a video of Lerner threatening to call the police on him while he tried to interview her.

“Please let me in. These guys are the press and they aren’t leaving me alone,” she says while knocking on a neighbor’s door.

“Why should we leave you alone? You were trying to use the IRS to crush political dissent,” Mattera says in the video below.

See also:

~Eowyn

A Day of Archangels

Today is the Feast Day of the Archangels!

September 29 traditionally was set aside as the Feast Day of St. Michael the Archangel. (The word “saint” simply means “holy.”) Then the Church made it the feast day of all the Archangels.

Three Angels are named in the Bible:

  1. Michael
  2. Gabriel: in Hebrew, the name means “God is my might”
  3. Raphael: in Hebrew, the name means “God has healed”

Notice that all three names end with “El” — which means God, in Hebrew. Thus, each Archangel’s name ending in “el” means they are “of God.”

Archangel Gabriel appears to Mary
The Annunciation by Sandro Botticelli, 1485

The word “angel,” in Greek is angelos; in Hebrew is malach; in Arabic is mala’ika – which all mean “messenger.”

Angels are incorporeal (bodiless) spiritual beings who act as intermediaries between God and humanity. Angels are defined by their function as messengers or message-bearers, although this function does not exhaust their activities because they were created by God to serve the supreme deity by fulfilling any and all tasks assigned to them.

In other words, being an angel or messenger simply denotes one of their functions, not their nature. St. Thomas Aquinas maintained that each angel is unique, a species unto itself — truly a mind-boggling idea.

Major philosophers — such as Thomas Aquinas, René Descartes, John Locke, and most recently, the American philosopher Mortimer Adler — have put forth compelling reasons for the existence of Angels. (For the conversion of Adler, a Jew, to the Catholic faith, see the moving account, “A Philosopher-Pagan Comes Home.)

Theologians maintain there is a hierarchy of Angels, due to the fact that in Genesis 3:24, Isaiah 6:1-7, Ezekiel 1, 10, Romans 8:38, Ephesians 1:21, 3:10, 6:12, Colossians 1:16, 2:10, 2:15, allusions are made to “seraphim,” “cherubim,” “thrones,” “dominions,” “mights,” “powers,” and “principalities” in the “heavenly places.”

Dionysius and St. Thomas Aquinas delineated three hierarchies of Angels, with each hierarchy comprised of three orders:

  • 1st hierarchy: Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones.
  • 2nd hierarchy: Dominions, Virtues, Powers.
  • 3rd hierarchy: Principalities, Archangels, Angels.

Of the nine angelic orders, five are sent by God for external ministry among bodily creatures, as indicated by their names of Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Archangels, and Angels—all of which refer to some kind of administrative or executive office. Of these five orders, only the last three minister to human beings, which suggests Virtues and Powers minister to other bodily creatures, including all the non-human animals whom St. Bonaventure called “creatures without sin”!

  • Principalities are in charge of the whole of humanity.
  • Archangels minister to nations — their leaders and those persons whom God tasks with special work to do on Earth.
  • Angels, the last order, are God’s messengers to and guardians of individual human beings.

The name “Lucifer” means “Morning Star,” “Son of the Dawn,” or “Light Carrier.” For that reason, theologians believe that Lucifer was a high-order Angel, most likely the highest order — a Seraphim. Aquinas thought him to be “probably the highest of all the angels.” But Lucifer admires and loves himself more than his Creator and thinks himself to be “as God.” And so, swollen with narcissism and grandiosity, Lucifer rebelled, taking a third of the angelic beings with him.

StMichaelTheArchangelBut, a lower-order Angel, full of courage and love of God, rallied together two-thirds of the angelic ranks against the apostates, in the First War that began the enduring conflict between good and evil:

Then war broke out in heaven; Michael and his angels battled against the dragon. The dragon and its angels fought back, but they did not prevail and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. The huge dragon, the ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, who deceived the whole world, was thrown down to earth, and its angels were thrown down with it. (Revelation 12:7-9)

That braveheart’s name is Micha-el, which means “Who is like God?”

I like to think “Who is like God?” is Micha-el‘s battle cry . . . .

St. Michael the Archangel is believed to be the captain or prince of the heavenly armies and the most beloved of all the Angels. He is mentioned in Daniel 10:13,31; 12:1 (where he is said to be the prince of the people of Israel); in Jude 9 (where he is said to have disputed with the devil about the body of Moses); and in Revelation 12:7 (where he is said to have led the heavenly armies against those of the great dragon).

Described in Revelation 10:1 as a “mighty angel…with a halo around his head; his face was like the sun and his feet were like pillars of fire,” St. Michael is generally portrayed by artists as wearing full armor and carrying a sword or lance, with his foot on the neck of a dragon. (Pictures of the martyred St. George are often similar, but only Micha-el has wings.)

michaelfrMichael has four main titles or offices. He is:

  • Patron of the Chosen People in the Old Testament.
  • Patron saint and defender of the Church.
  • The Angel of death, who assists Jesus in the final judgment (thus, Michael is sometimes depicted with a scale).
  • Leading the good angels against the fallen angels or demons. For that reason, Christians consider St. Michael the most powerful defender of God’s people against evil. As such, Michael is also the patron saint of soldiers and policemen. (For the Prayer to St. Michael, go here.)

All of which is why St. Michael the Archangel – the Braveheart of Angels — is my most favorite saint, whom I admire and love with all my heart. He is my captain. As you can see from this blog’s masthead, he is also the protector of Fellowship of the Minds.

Happy Feast Day, St. Michael, St. Gabriel, St. Raphael!

Thank you for inspiring us with your humility, courage, goodness, and love for God.

Thank you, God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, for creating the marvelous Angels!

~Eowyn

For a fascinating account of one man’s experience with the Archangel Michael, click here. Check out FOTM’s other saints and angels posts, here!

Sources:

  1. Mortimer J. Adler, The Angels and Us (New York: Macmillan, 1982).
  2. Matthew Bunson, Angels A to Z: A Who’s Who of the Heavenly Host (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1996), pp. 181-184.
  3. Michael H. Brown, Prayer of the Warrior (Goleta, CA: Queenship Publishing Co., 1993), p. 34.
  4. René Descartes, Meditations On First Philosophy, trans. by Donald A. Cress (Indianapolis & Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1979).
  5. John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, edited with an introduction by A. D. Woozley (Cleveland & New York: Meridian Books, 1968),
  6. Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Volume One(New York: Benziger Brothers, 1947).

Why Are Californian Republicans Such Sniveling Cowards?

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There were two excellent candidates for governor in California’s June primary: Tim Donnely, a pro-family, pro-life, pro-Constitution, liberty-loving Tea Party Republican, and Robert Newman, a pro-family, pro-life, pro-Constitution independent.

So who did Californian Republicans vote for? Neel Kashkari, a Republican-in-name-only who supports Obamacare and admits he voted for aka-Obama, who once worked as a junior banker for Goldman Sachs, and who, in 2008, was given control of $700 billion of tax-payer money which he handed out to the banking industry, including his former employer, Goldman Sachs.

Ask Republicans why they voted for a such a candidate and their immediate response is, “We have to win in November.” And yet they keep losing.

Ever been to a Californian Republican meeting? I have, several times. Half the time is spent arguing over procedural matters, and the other half consists of members, who just happen to work for companies like Nation Builder, pitching their services, which just happen to be extremely expensive.

If someone has the temerity to suggest that the party embrace their conservative roots by coming out in strong support of the Constitution, the pro-life movement, traditional marriage, etc., they are applauded by most in attendance, but then told by the “leaders” that they are being “unrealistic.” “We have to win in November,” they say, and yet they keep losing.

Ever volunteered to work for the Republican Party? I have, several times. No one returned any of my phone calls or emails.

California Republicans loathe the Tea Party. They see the Tea Party as a threat to their established ways. They claim the Tea Party does not represent their members. And yet they keep losing.

In California there are numerous races in which the Republican Party does not even bother to run a candidate. “No chance to win,” they say. “We have to be realistic.” And yet they keep losing.

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Orly Taitz ran for Attorney General as an independent in the June primary. Possessed with infinite courage and wisdom, Taitz would have done everything she could to clean house and expose political corruption. Did Republicans vote for her? No, they didn’t have the guts.

If you voted for Neel Kashkari in California’s primary, I’m calling you out. Why did you betray your state, your country, your family, and yourself by voting for such a man? Why are you such a damn, sniveling coward?

http://fellowshipoftheminds.com/2011/07/02/the-gop-went-over-to-the-dark-side/

http://fellowshipoftheminds.com/2012/11/15/why-the-gop-will-not-do-anything-about-vote-fraud/

“Who wants their son to live the life of a handicapped person? Maybe some families want this, but we don’t.”

AFP Photo

AFP Photo

France24: Parents of an extremely premature baby, currently in hospital in the city of Poitiers, have asked doctors to take their child off life support, or “passive euthanasia”. The doctors, however, say they need more time to evaluate the baby’s condition.

“We made this decision over a week ago,” said the baby’s mother, Mélanie, who was interviewed by France Info. “Who wants their son to live the life of a handicapped person? Maybe some families want this, but we don’t.”

The baby boy, named Titouan, was born on 31 August, four months before his due date. He weighed just under 2lb at birth and suffered from an intracerebral haemorrhage. For now, the doctors at the University Hospital Center of Poitiers (CHU) are unable to judge the extent of the damage to his brain.

“If we want to be able to fully understand the consequences [of the haemorrhage], we can’t rush this. We need a few weeks to evaluate his condition,” said Professor Fabrice Pierre, of the department of gynecology and obstetrics at Poitiers CHU, on French TV channel France Bleu. “Currently, we are not giving him intensive treatment; we are simply giving him life support to give us the time to do a proper evaluation.”

The baby’s parents, Mélanie and Aurélien, who are both in their 30s, say that doctors have already told them that their son will be paralysed on one side and that it is very likely he will be “severely disabled.”

They accuse the “inhumane” doctors of prolonging their son’s suffering.

Currently, euthanasia is illegal in France, though the 2005 law says that doctors are allowed to end or refrain from using treatments or care that result in the artificial prolongation of life, as long as the family agrees with the doctor’s decision. This is often referred to as “passive euthanasia,” or withholding treatments necessary to the continuation of life.

Importantly, the 2005 law also puts the decision in the hands of the doctors.
Faced with the repeated demands of Titouan’s parents, CHU’s neonatal unit sought out the advice of an ethics panel. They have yet to make a decision.

Earlier in the year, French President François Hollande announced that the government planned to enact a tightly-framed law allowing “medical assistance to end one’s life in dignity”.

Close to nine out of ten French people (89%) interviewed said they would be in favour of a law authorising euthanasia, according to a survey published in French daily Le Parisien at the end of June.

In situations when a person is too sick to make the decision themselves, 53% said the family should make the decision, 41% said a doctor should only 6% said a judge should make the decision.

In June, The Council of State, France’s top administrative court ruled in favour of so-called passive euthanasia in the high-profile case of Vincent Lambert, a tetraplegic patient who has been in a state of minimal consciousness for the past six years.

See also:

DCG